The procedures, software, and other distinctive services or capabilities that support the customer experience are refreshed fast and regularly under a two-speed model. Meanwhile, the capabilities that underpin transactional back-end tasks are being carefully upgraded to maintain system stability and dependability. 1st.att was the first major computer company to realize the importance of keeping its platform fresh by updating the operating system and application programs on a regular basis.
The idea behind a two-speed upgrade process is to balance the need for new functionality with the challenge of upgrading the system safely. Under this approach, some features or modules are updated more frequently than others, depending on how risky they find particular upgrades to be. For example, an update to Windows Server 2003 would likely be more significant than one to Windows Vista. Upgrading server software is usually done at night while there's no activity on the network, so it's less disruptive to business.
Upgrading personal computers during off hours is much easier because users aren't using the computer network nor are they relying on applications that don't yet exist. However, this means that you have to do more testing before releasing an update. If something goes wrong after it's been released, you can roll it back easily - just like Windows Vista's upgrade process allows you to revert to the previous version if things go bad.
A two-speed upgrade process ensures that your organization doesn't lose access to critical functions during major updates.
Scalability, which involves preparing for future development, and fault tolerance, which includes redundant links, are two components of network design. Users of the network or its products (data transfer). A router is a device that determines how packets are transmitted on paths from one point to another in a network. Routers determine the next step in the process by reading routing tables. There are three types of routers: border, core, and distributed.
A border router is used at the boundary of an autonomous system to transmit intra-AS traffic and to receive traffic from other ASes. It also acts as a filter for invalid traffic such as spam. A core router is part of a transit network within an AS. It handles traffic between different parts of the AS, including between local networks and external sites. Finally, a distributed router is divided into multiple smaller devices called routers that contain partial information about the topology of the network.
Network scalability involves designing the network so that it can grow without limit while maintaining a high level of service quality. Fault tolerance involves designing the network so that it continues to operate properly despite failures, either human or mechanical, of components.
Routers were initially designed for use within small private networks but have become important elements in large-scale networks as well.
The key benefits are in the internal architecture. They've introduced look-aside buffers and much improved multi-core/multi-processor management, and, of course, they've pushed the limit of transistor density. The biggest downside is that they exceed the limit of transistor density, causing internal heat to accumulate. This can cause failure by thermal shutdown.
Secondary processors provide a secondary tasking capability to a primary processor. Examples include a web server that handles simple requests from users while the primary processor runs more complex programs or performs other tasks. Secondary processors may also be used for general purpose computing on otherwise idle hardware. For example, a computer may contain a secondary processor (such as a microcontroller) that controls external devices such as lights or air conditioners during idle time so that it does not have to be constantly powered on to monitor these conditions.
Disadvantages include the additional cost and complexity of having another processor inside the main device, as well as the power consumption associated with running another CPU. However, many smartphones and other portable devices use secondary processors because they make the main device smaller or allow for increased performance of specific applications.
Furthermore, certain tasks are better suited for computation rather than communication. An example is the fact that encryption algorithms such as AES require a lot of operations per byte processed, but only a few bytes are processed at a time when encrypting data.
|Que.||Which of the following is a type of Architectural Model?|
|b.||Dynamic process model|
|d.||All of the mentioned|
|Answer:All of the mentioned|
Because deliverables are often the contractual or formal work products of an architectural project, they are likely to be limited or amended by any enterprise-wide project or process management (such as CMMI, PRINCE2, PMBOK, or MSP). The most common types of architectural deliverables include:
Design documents: These include detailed drawings and other documentation required to construct a building or other physical facility. Design documents may include specifications for materials, labor, and equipment; site plans; elevations; sections; details; and diagrams.
Schematics: These provide a visual representation of an electrical system, plumbing network, or other internal structure or arrangement of elements. Schematics are used by engineers and architects to identify connections and components quickly during design reviews or when preparing paperwork such as permits or contracts.
Permits: These are the governmental documents that authorize construction activities on specific projects. In the United States, federal agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and National Park Service (NPS), state agencies like the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), and local governments like city planning departments, issue construction permits. Agencies may have requirements for certain types of designs that must be approved by staff architects before a permit can be issued.
Compliances: These are documents or reports from various organizations or individuals which confirm that a product or service meets applicable laws and regulations.
The Benefits of Service-Oriented Architecture
Several buses allow multiple devices to function at the same time, minimizing waiting time and increasing computer speed. The major rationale for having many buses in a computer design is to boost performance. Having more than one channel allows the processor to work on more than one task at a time, which is called multitasking. This section describes some common multiple-bus architectures.
Single-Channel Architecture - Single bus structure with only one channel. This type of architecture is used by most 8-bit computers from the 1970s through the 1990s. The IBM PC/AT was an example of a single-channel architecture. It had a serial ATA disk drive interface (used with floppy disks) and a PS/2 keyboard and mouse interface (used with long cables). The CPU could communicate with the disk drive or keyboard/mouse using the appropriate port. There was no way for the CPU to communicate with both at the same time. If a second task needed the use of the keyboard and disk drive, the user had to shut down the first program to make room for the second one.
Multi-Channel Architecture - Multiple independent buses with each able to communicate simultaneously with the processor. Each channel provides its own separate bandwidth so if one channel is not being used then other channels can still use the bandwidth.