Neoclassical architecture is distinguished by grandeur of scale, geometric simplicity, Greek—particularly Doric (see order)—or Roman detail, dramatic use of columns, and a penchant for blank walls. The new appreciation for ancient simplicity arose in response to the excesses of the Rococo style. Neoclassicism was also inspired by classical antiquity but not limited to it: it can be found in many different cultures and periods.
Characteristics of neoclassical sculpture include formal dignity, strict adherence to classical models, and idealization of the human form. The term "neoclassical" was first used to describe French art in the early 19th century. It was then adopted as an adjective describing other countries' arts that were similar to France's at the time.
The modern interpretation of neoclassicism as we know it today can be traced back to the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. He argued that true classicism could only be found in ancient Greece and not in Rome because the Romans had polluted their art with additional elements, such as interest from economics or politics.
In France, the term "neoclassicien" was first used to describe artists who worked within this movement. Modern scholars often use the terms interchangeably, although some restrict the meaning to refer solely to artists who produced works during the period 1730-1820 in Europe.
Neoclassical interior design is a cozier and more refined alternative to the clean, Spartan aesthetic found in Modernist dwellings. Look at what sets this option out from the rest: the colors. Neoclassical color palettes are often soft and understated. It is predominantly white, cream, and gray. Sometimes these spaces include a touch of blue or red.
All around you will see evidence of the neoclassical style. Fabrics and wallpapers that are typical of this home decor style are called neocolonial and neo-rococo as well. Also, note some common features which include: heavy drapes, plush furniture, and elaborate chandeliers.
The term "neoclassical" was first used by American architect Henry Hobson Richardson to describe the interior design style of Thomas Jefferson. Since then, it has become one of the most popular styles across America.
Have a look at some famous neoclassical buildings: The White House by Henry Hobson Richardson, the Department of State by James Renwick Jr., and the National Gallery of Art by Richard M. Upjohn are all great examples of this style.
Another interesting fact about this house design style is that it started out as a reaction to the modernism that was becoming popular in the 1950s. Before this time, people didn't care what kind of design they had inside their homes; all they wanted was warmth and comfort.
Furniture The neoclassical furniture is modest but symmetrical. Dark wood furniture is common, and rooms are lavishly decorated with magnificent ornamentation, stone and marble flooring, and Persian rugs. Damask silk, brocade, linen, and velvet are sumptuous but not flashy textiles. The style is most evident in the early Federal period (1790-1820), but it is also found in some late Empire pieces.
Federalism was a political system in which power is divided between a national government and several state governments. It existed in many countries including America. Federalism has been described as "a form of government in which power is shared by a central government and one or more subordinate governments."
In the American case, the national government consists of a president and senators elected from the states. The executive powers of the president include appointing officials and agents such as judges. The legislative powers include creating laws and funding agencies such as the military. There is no separation of powers under federalism, instead there is a strong presidency who can overrule legislators and courts.
Neoclassicism is the revival of interest in classical antiquity, especially during the 18th century. Neoclassicism is often associated with architecture and design, but it also had important implications for other arts such as sculpture and painting. Sculptures were made out of bronze or marble and paintings were done on canvas or glass.
During the 18th century, the prominent styles were baroque and rococo. The latter, with its focus on asymmetry, vivid colors, and decoration, is commonly seen as the polar opposite of the Neoclassical style, which is founded on order, symmetry, and simplicity. However, both are distinct from medieval art, which was primarily religious.
Neoclassicism is the name given to a set of movements that had their roots in 17th-century France but that continued into the early 19th century. They consisted of a return to the ideals of classical antiquity for artistic inspiration and modeling of works of art.
The term "neoclassical" has been applied to many different arts and cultures over time, but it usually refers to the following five periods:
1715-35 - French neoclassicism, led by Antoine Coypel, based on Roman Antiquity and the Renaissance
1815-48 - British neoclassicism, led by Sir Charles Robert Cockerell, based on Greek and Roman Antiquity
1825-55 - American neoclassicism, led by John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson Downing, based on Roman Antiquity
The prevailing architectural style on Capitol Hill is neoclassical, influenced by the usage of ancient Greek and Roman styles on grand public structures. The designs of the United States Capitol, inspired by ancient Greece and Rome, represent the ideas that motivated the nation's founders as they created their new republic. Government employees adopted this style to reflect their belief in the importance of reason, science, and education for improving society.
The United States Congress built its first federal building in 1791 in Philadelphia. This early government building was a simple wooden structure with no interior walls dividing up rooms. By 1816, when the second federal building was completed in Washington, D.C., architects had learned from their experiences building in Philadelphia and included more advanced features in their designs. For example, they used load-bearing brick walls instead of stone or timber framing to provide greater durability and ease of construction.
In 1815, after spending several years living in temporary offices around the city, Congress voted to build a new capital city. They selected a site near the Anacostia River because it was close to important transportation routes and would be able to accommodate Congress during its various sessions. Land was donated by Maryland and Virginia for the purpose of building a federal city.
When the city was being planned, members of Congress made certain that it included plans for monumental buildings that would make it easy for people to find their way around.