The Parthenon incorporates characteristics from both the Doric and Ionic orders. It is essentially a Doric peripteral temple with a continuous carved frieze taken from the Ionic order and four Ionic columns supporting the opisthodomos' roof. The overall effect is one of lightness and grace, qualities not commonly associated with Greek architecture.
The building was originally covered in gold leaf, which has now mostly disappeared under the layers of paint that have been applied over the years. But some parts are still visible including the yellow-orange color of the marble from which it is made. The building also features blue and white marbles, red and black granite, and limestone.
The structure itself is based on the diairic motif, or "twin pillars" system, which consists of two pairs of columns supporting a triangular pediment. This arrangement creates a large open area within the building where the sculpture that once adorned the exterior walls can be seen today.
The building is named after the goddess Athena, who had her own sanctuary (or altar) within the structure. Athena was the goddess of wisdom and craftsmanship, and as such she was often depicted carrying tools like scissors and a torch to help guide people toward understanding ideas and problems they were struggling with.
Athena's influence can be seen in many aspects of life at Athens, especially in politics and education.
The Parthenon is a Greek temple in Athens that was erected in the 5th century BC in the Doric Order, Greece's oldest architectural style. In the frieze, a part of the ceiling structure, Doric temples have alternating patterns of triglyphs (panels with three vertical lines) and metopes. The Parthenon's sculptured decoration includes figures of animals, warriors, and other scenes that illustrate myths from Greek mythology.
The center section of the Parthenon, which faces an axis at 90 degrees to both the east and west entrances, holds the most important sculptures and is called the metope field. This area is divided into four parts by two rows of columns: one below the entablature and one above it. Each metope has a scene that illustrates a myth from Greek mythology. There are 64 metopes in all; they were carved out of single blocks of marble and painted white before being set into place in their current positions on the wall surfaces.
The lower row of columns on the metope field is known as the anti-entasis column because it gets narrower as it goes up (this creates more space above it than below). These columns support the entablature, which is the name given to the horizontal panel above the column capitals that provides structural support for the temple's roof. The entablature consists of a flat surface covered with sculpture, which serves as a kind of billboard for the architect. It often displays the donor's likeness or some other inscription.
The Parthenon is the focal point of a 5th-century BCE construction campaign on Athens' Acropolis. It was built during the High Classical period and is often regarded as the pinnacle of the development of the Doric order, the simplest of the three Classical Greek architectural orders. The building's original purpose is unknown; it may have been a temple to Athena or possibly a treasury. It is estimated to have taken 20 years to complete.
The exterior of the Parthenon is made of Pentelic marble, while the interior features magnificent sculptured decoration by Phidias and his team. The structure also includes an odeon (a large hall for musical performances), a library, and other administrative offices. Today, only the neoclassical modifications make up most of the present-day building; the rest lies in ruins. The entire site is protected by UNESCO as a world heritage site.
The Parthenon stands on the highest elevation of Athens' city center, offering a view of the city below. It dominates the skyline with its four towering Ionic columns, which are all that remain of the building's original entrance. Inside, the central axis of the floorplan is flanked by two rows of stone panels known as metopes. They contain sculptures of Athenian heroes dating from about 450 to 400 BC. One side faces east toward sunrise, while the other west toward sunset. This design allows for annual re-sculpting of the metopes.
The Parthenon is a work of art in terms of symmetry and proportion. This temple to the Goddess Athena was created without the use of mortar or cement, with the stones being cut with exquisite precision and held together by iron clamps. The overall effect is one of simplicity and grandeur that has never been surpassed. Even today, it remains one of the most beautiful buildings in all of Greece.
The Parthenon is made up of four main parts: the cella, the pediment, the metopes, and the triglyphs. Each part plays an important role in illustrating mythological scenes from Greek history and culture. The cella is the central room where the statue of Athena was kept before it was put on display for public viewing. The pediment is the upper section of the wall covering the cella; it features sculptures by various artists including Phidias and Praxiteles. The metopes are the decorative blocks placed between the columns of the building's interior. They feature images of battles and other events from Greek history. The triglyphs are three-sided panels used as doorways or windows. They also feature sculptures by great artists such as Myron and Polycleitus.
Even though the Parthenon was built over a period of time, it can be divided into five eras based on changes made to it during construction visits conducted by the city-state of Athens.
The architects used remarkable inventiveness in terms of the temple's scale and proportions. The Parthenon featured eight columns on each of its short ends and seventeen columns on each of its long sides. A Porches: The deep pronaos and opisthodomos were replaced with shallow prostyle porches with six columns at either end of the cella. B Roof: The original roof was made of bronze tiles, but it was destroyed by fire in 548 BC. It was not until 421 that the roof was replaced with silver tiles.
The word "Parthenon" is derived from the Greek words for "virgin" or "young woman". This temple was originally constructed to honor the goddess Athena, who was believed to have appeared to Odysseus (Ulysses) in her youth. On reaching age 16, Athena went to Athens to study under Zeus himself. She remained there for nine years before returning to be worshipped as a virgin goddess- the Parthenon being her temple. Today, she is also worshipped as a war goddess.
Built in 447 BC, the temple was dedicated to Athena Polias ("Athena the City"), she being the protector of Athens. The building work was carried out by Phidias, one of the most important sculptors of his time. The temple was built of marble brought from Elis, an Athenian province. It had been intended to build the temple of Poseidon but the project was abandoned when funds ran out.