Rajasthan's architecture is mostly based on the Rajput style of architecture, which was a hybrid of Mughal and Hindu structural designs. Rajasthan's magnificent forts, intricately etched temples, and magnificent havelis are significant components of the state's architectural legacy. The former serve as reminders of the region's past military might while the latter depict the wealth and culture of the ruling families who inhabited them.
Some notable features of Rajasthani architecture include decorative carved woodwork, fine latticework, colored glass, ceramic tiles, and many other materials used by local craftsmen for decoration or functional purposes.
For example, the Jain temple complex in Jaipur is an outstanding display of painted stone sculpture dating back to the 17th century. Its colors still retain their original brilliance despite not being cleaned for several years now.
Similarly, the beautiful marble interiors of the famous Jantar Mantar complex in Jaipur reflect the work of various artists from across India over three centuries. Not only does this exhibit prove that Indian art has some of the most creative people in the world, it also shows the exchange of knowledge that existed between scientists from different countries.
Rajasthan's forts were originally built to protect its inhabitants from invasion by violent neighbors such as the Moghuls and Marathas.
The Rajasthani Havelis Rajasthani artisans created key architectural styles and components such as Jharokhas, Chhattris, Baodis (step wells), Johad, and Jaalis. A famous architectural form, the haveli or mansion of well-to-do Marwaris, emerged between 1830 and 1930. These grand buildings were designed by skilled mason craftsmen who used many exotic materials including marble, stone, and wood. Havelis usually had several rooms for family members or guests to live in.
Havelis had large gardens where families could enjoy the outdoors. They would also have a small pool where children could play. Havelis were most common in the Jaipur and Jhalawar districts but can be found across Rajasthan.
Bungalows are the most common type of house in Rajasthan. Originally built for soldiers, they were later used by landowners to provide accommodation for workers. Today, bungalows can be found across the state, especially in the Jodhpur, Udaipur, and Bikaner regions.
Karanas or caravan camps are places where travelers can stay in tents. They often contain food stalls and shops that sell fruits, vegetables, and other goods. Karana camps can be found on highway routes across Rajasthan.
Kuches or clay pots are used to cook food in rural Rajasthan.
Odisha is home to some of the best specimens of ancient Indian architecture, ranging from Jain rock-cut caves to Hindu temples to Buddhist stupas. The growth of Odisha's temple architecture is shown by the beehive-shaped tower (deul) and the porch in front (jagmohan). There are several theories about the origin of these structures. Some believe them to be pre-Buddhist sites while others claim they are Roman or even Greek in origin.
The temple buildings in Odisha represent a remarkable achievement in the art of building. They show a high degree of technical proficiency and artistic creativity. The growth of temple architecture is evident from the fact that there were more than 7,000 functioning temples in Odisha in 2001. Today, this number has come down due to destruction caused by natural disasters and wars over time. But even in today's world where architecture has become very utilitarian, the temples of Odisha remain faithful reflections of the worshippers' beliefs and aspirations.
Some of the most important sites related to temple architecture include Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu, Rock-cut caves at Ajanta and Ellora in Maharashtra, and Srisailam Temple in Andhra Pradesh.
Mahabalipuram is known for its large collection of ancient temple buildings cut into the rocks along the shoreline of Bay of Bengal. It was here that Lord Shiva destroyed himself in order to avoid becoming king of the demons.
The Rajasthani school of painting is distinguished by its use of strong designs and brilliant colors. Its major centers are Mewar, Marwar, Kishangarh, Bundi, and Jaipur, among others. They employ vibrant colors such as red and yellow. Their paintings often feature royal subjects like Krishna, Radha, and other Hindu deities.
Rajasthan has a long history of artistic excellence that dates back over 500 years. The rulers of various kingdoms commissioned artists to paint pictures for them. Some of the most famous names in Indian art history were born in Rajasthan including Mughal, Sindhu, and Bhopa artists. In fact, the first Indian museum was founded in Udaipur in 1818. Today, the state's capital city of Jaipur is one of the largest producers of luxury goods in India.
Artists from Rajasthan have been invited to exhibit their work all over the world. The government of India has designated 2011 as the "Year of Rajasthani Art".
Rajasthani painting uses bright colors to depict stories from Hindu mythology. Subjects range from portraits of kings to scenes from daily life to exotic wildlife. There are two main styles of painting: rural painting and town painting. Rural artists focus on details like clothes, jewelry, and furniture while urban artists tend to paint large-scale images.
Rajasthani homes feature strong walls and flat roofs to survive the scorching climatic conditions. The dwellings are built using brick and clay, as well as cement, wood, aluminum, and sheetrock. Each district has its own style of architecture, with some similarities to Mughal architecture and Persian styles.
There are three main types of houses in Rajasthan: Vaishali, Vastu and Malai. A Vaishali house has one room with a central courtyard. It is built around a square or rectangular base structure with four walls and a roof made of bamboo or thatch. The doors and windows are mostly made of wooden planks without glass. A vastu shila stands for two rooms - one on either side of a walled courtyard. It is also known as a "Jharokha" (carriage) because it looks like a small fort. The third type of house is a mali ka ghar, which means little house. These are usually single-room structures with a low ceiling and no window. There is always a door from the outside into the house, but it may be made of wood or mud.
Each district has several clans that trace their ancestry back hundreds of years. They occupy different positions in society based on this history.
The construction of forts and tombs bore a remarkable similarity to Islamic architecture under the patronage of the Mughal rulers. The Persian and Indian styles were cleverly combined to produce works of high quality and accuracy. This article focuses on only two types of Mughal buildings: forts and tombs.
Forts were large fortified settlements built by the Mughals at various locations around their empire. They were meant not only as military strongholds, but also as places where the Mughal emperor could live in peace away from the public eye.
The construction of forts bore a remarkable similarity to Islamic architecture under the patronage of the Mughal rulers.
Tombs are structures built over the graves of famous people or important dates in history. Many Mughal emperors are buried in Tombs with great pomp and ceremony. The word "Mughal" means "Greater India" in Sanskrit; therefore, it is not surprising that the Mughals were great builders. But more than this, they were artists who knew how to combine different elements of design to create unique buildings.