The Doric and Ionic orders are the two most important orders in archaic and ancient Greek architecture. The columns of the first order, the Doric order, are fluted and lack a base. The capitals are made up of two parts: a flat slab called the abacus and a cushion-like slab called the echinus. The Doric order is found only in mainland Greece. The pillars of the second order, the Ionic order, have a cylindrical body with a flat top and a foot with a heel at the bottom. They are usually crowned with an entablature and covered with a dome or cupola.
Other important factors to consider when looking at Greek architecture are the climate and natural resources of Greece. Because of the country's location on the Aegean Sea and its many islands, it has long been exposed to the influence of other cultures. Over time, these influences can be seen in the development of Greek architecture. For example, since the Dorians were migrating into Greece from the north, they would have brought their own building practices with them. However, even after the arrival of the Romans, who built very few structures in Greece because they considered it part of their empire until around 200 B.C., when they started building large public works, these buildings still used many of the same techniques as those previously built by the Greeks themselves.
Greece has many beautiful sites that house ruins of great buildings built by the Greeks themselves.
Ancient Greek architecture grew into three separate orders during its early ascent in the Classical period: the Doric, the Ionic, and the Corinthian. Each of these orders was distinguished by distinctive elements in its columns, which were used in formal, public structures like as stadiums and theaters. The Doric order was most common in southern Greece while the Ionic style was popular in Athens. The Corinthian order was developed in Corinth but is also found in other parts of Greece and on islands like Delos.
During the Hellenistic period, the influence of Rome began to appear in Greek architecture. The Romans adopted many features from their ancient culture that became integrated into European architecture including the Doric order. Many buildings in Greece follow this style, including the National Archaeological Museum in Athens that was built in 1882. During the Byzantine era (fourth century B.C. to fifteenth century A.D.), Greek architecture evolved further with the introduction of new styles such as the East Roman or Romanesque tradition.
After the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, many Greeks migrated to Venice, France, and England, where they continued to build in the traditional Greek style.
Today, there are many buildings remaining from the classical era. Some of them are national monuments while others are private homes.
Classical Greek architecture is split into three orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order, and the Corinthian Order. All three styles had a significant effect on later Western architecture. The Doric order was primarily used for temples and other religious buildings, while the Ionic order was typically found in commercial buildings. The Corinthian order, which is now most associated with Classical Greece, was used mainly for public buildings such as temples, but also for houses. Although non-Greek cultures built many monuments that have survived today, none of these cultures ever reached the level of sophistication as Greece did during this time.
The classical style came to an end around 30 BC when Roman architect Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus built the Temple of Jupiter (Jupiter Tonans) in Rome using the Doric order. The last Greek temple built before this time is the Hephaestus Temple by Athenian architect Leochares. After this point, no new major temples were built for another 150 years until the reign of Emperor Augustus.
During the Roman Empire period (from 27 BC to 395 AD), architects in Rome and elsewhere throughout Europe copied many aspects of the classical style. These copies can be seen in many churches built between then and the Renaissance.