The employment of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders is the most visible resemblance between Greek and Roman architecture. Though the Greeks invented the Corinthian order, the Romans seemed to like it and built more structures in that style than the Greeks. The Romans also used the Doric order but rarely if ever for public buildings. They mostly used the Ionic order for their government buildings and temples.
Beyond these three common orders, there are many other elements shared by Greek and Roman architecture including: arches, colonnades, domes, entablatures, friezes, porticos, pediments, porches, triglyphs, and tresses.
Greek and Roman architects also differed significantly in their approaches to design. While both were very concerned with function, the Greeks tended to make their structures be as light as possible while the Romans preferred solidity and weightiness. This is evident from the different ways in which they designed houses: the Greeks usually built open spaces inside their houses where the Romans often didn't. Also, the Greeks made use of materials such as marble and bronze for their buildings while the Romans used stone and concrete instead.
In conclusion, Greek and Roman architects took similar designs and techniques from all over the world and adapted them to meet the needs of their societies. However, they also made many changes to those designs so each structure reflected the personal taste of its creator.
Orders of Architecture The standards established by the Greeks' classical orders, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, were followed by Roman architects. The Corinthian style was extremely popular, and many Roman structures, even until Late Antiquity, would have had a decidedly Greek appearance. However, while Greek builders tended to use the same material for all parts of a structure, the Romans used different materials for their various components: stone for foundations, wood for frame buildings, and brick or concrete for walls.
The Romans also developed their own unique styles that evolved over time. They began with an imitation of the Greeks' classic orders but soon became independent of them. By the 1st century BC, architects were free to innovate without worrying about whether their work complied with any specific style. Many new types of buildings appeared during this period, including theaters, basilicas, arches, porticos, and temples.
By the end of the Republic in 30 BC, architects were still free to experiment with new ideas but were also expected to follow certain guidelines set by authority figures such as Julius Caesar, who wanted buildings constructed in a uniform manner throughout his domain.
Over the next few centuries, architectural styles continued to evolve but remained based on practical considerations rather than aesthetic ones. By the 4th century AD, architects once again started to copy the Greeks' classic orders but this time they did so out of reverence for those who had come before them.
In ancient Greek architecture, there are three different orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The Romans adopted all three and adjusted their capitals. In general, they resembled those of the Greeks of Doric order.
The Doric order was used mainly for columns and other vertical structures. It is based on square blocks with flat surfaces and plain edges. The Romans modified the shape of the Doric capital by cutting away parts of it. This allowed them to use thinner pieces of wood and still have a strong column. As you can see in the picture below, they usually took out a square block from the middle of the capstone and replaced it with an ornamental element. They might also take out more than one block at a time and insert smaller elements between them.
Ionic order was used mostly for tables and chairs. It has a flowing, curving design with no straight lines. The Doric and Ionic orders are very similar except that the Ionic has slightly curved capitals. The Romans adapted this style so many different kinds of vessels could be made using the same type of stock. For example, jars would be Ionic while vases would be Doric.
Corinthian order was used mainly on entablatures and roofs.
Ancient Greek architecture grew into three separate orders during its early ascent in the Classical period: the Doric, the Ionic, and the Corinthian. Each of these orders was distinguished by distinctive elements in its columns, which were used in formal, public structures like as stadiums and theaters. The Doric order was most popular in southern Greece while the Ionic style was predominant in Asia Minor and on the Aegean Islands.
During the Hellenistic period, the Corinthian order came to be the most prestigious because it was believed to have been used by Alexander the Great when he built his palace in Egypt. It is from this era that we get the names "Corinthian column" and "Corinthian stone".
The end of the classical period saw the decline of Greek culture and the emergence of Roman culture. As part of this transition, Greek architecture evolved into Latin architecture. The Romans adopted many aspects of Greek architecture but they also developed their own unique style that combined Roman engineering knowledge with Greek building techniques. This is how we get examples of both Greek and Roman architecture today.