Both towns were established on the banks of rivers. While Mohenjo-Daro was built on the Indus River's right bank, Harappa was built on the Ravi River's left bank. Their circuits are around 5 kilometers long. In many respects, ground designs, which include street layouts and dwelling blocks, are also widespread. However, Mohenjo-Daro is much larger than Harappa and has more public buildings including temples and a university.
Mohenjo-Daro was inhabited from about 2500 B.C. to 500 B.C., while Harappa lasted from about 3300 B.C. to 700 A.D. Although both cities were destroyed by the same event - an earthquake - there are differences in how they were rebuilt. For example, while Mohenjo-Daro was completely restored within a few years of its destruction, Harappa took hundreds of years to recover from its damage.
Another similarity between Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa is that both were major trading centers. Not only did they trade with each other but also with other civilizations such as those found in China, India, and Europe. For example, beads from Mohenjo-Daro have been found in Chinese archeological sites. Likewise, artifacts such as knives, armor, and ornaments have been discovered in Harappa.
Finally, both cities had universities where students came from all over Asia to study philosophy, science, medicine, and technology.
Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are two of the biggest civilizations of the Indus Valley, with a fundamental distinction in their geographical location. While Mohenjo-daro is located in the Punjab area, Harappa is located in the Sindh province. This difference in geography has caused them to develop separately from each other.
Both of these cities were founded around the same time (3300 B.C.), but they had different political systems in place. In Mohenjo-daro, the king was considered the highest authority while in Harappa, the priests had more power. The king of Mohenjo-daro was called a maharaja, while the people referred to him as an emperor. The king of Harappa was called a ruler, and his subjects called him a jayantar.
Later on, both of these cities would collapse due to natural disasters. Mohenjo-daro was destroyed by fire, while Harappa fell victim to floods. After this series of disasters, no evidence of these ancient civilizations has been found.
However, not all is lost for archaeologists. They have discovered many old artifacts that help them learn more about the history of these civilizations. Some of these artifacts include statues, tools made out of stone, and even jewelry. These discoveries show us that these civilizations were very advanced at creating art and architecture.
The principal streets of the Harappan cities were laid out in a grid layout. They were constructed from north to south and east to west. The residences constructed on street corners were rounded to allow carts to pass through. Mohenjo-main daro's street was 10.5 meters wide and 800 meters long. Its houses had flat roofs but no walls. There were open spaces between buildings that may have served as courtyards or used for other purposes.
The Harappans built their homes with a mixture of mud bricks and stone slabs. Some houses had wooden frames but the majority were only made of mud bricks. The Harappans were also known for their complex drainage systems. Their roads were designed so that any water that did not evaporate would flow into small channels which led to large public tanks where it could be collected for drinking or irrigation purposes.
Harappa was primarily a trading center, but also played an important role in agriculture. It is estimated that about 5,000 people lived there at its peak in 2500 B.C. However, due to wars, natural disasters, and poor management decisions, most of the cities fell into disrepair and were abandoned by 500 B.C.
The Indus Valley Civilization had two major urban centers: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. These towns were developed along the Indus River's shore. Each city featured well-planned architecture, public granaries, and a well-functioning sewage and drainage system. The cities also included large numbers of houses with two or three stories. There are indications that the residents took great care in choosing their building sites to get the best view possible or to take advantage of natural defenses such as hills or lakes.
These cities were inhabited from 3300 to 1300 B.C. They seem to have collapsed around the same time as other ancient civilizations, such as those of Egypt or Mesopotamia. But they could have been rebuilt after floods or earthquakes destroyed much of what was already there. Scientists think that many factors may have contributed to the civilization's collapse, including changes in the climate, warfare, and disease. But the only certainty is that they did collapse. None of them has been found since their discovery in the 1920s.
In addition to these two major cities, the Indus Valley people probably had smaller settlements scattered across their territory. Some evidence suggests that some of these might be modern-day Pakistan villages, but most experts believe they were mostly deserted at the time of the civilization's collapse.
What is known about the Indus Valley people comes from excavations at their two main cities.
The biggest achievements of the Indus Valley civilisation were Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro. These cities are well-known for their stunning, well-organized, and consistent layout. They feature an efficient plumbing and drainage system, as well as indoor toilets. The people of this culture built using stone, bone, and clay tools. They made weapons from bronze and iron. Evidence suggests that the Harappans traded with peoples as far away as Afghanistan and Iran.
The culture lasted from 3000 to 600 B.C. In contrast to other ancient civilizations, such as those in Egypt or Mesopotamia, there is little evidence of a powerful ruler or army during the time of the Harappans. It seems they lived in small independent towns that may have been ruled by local elites who probably inherited their position. There is no indication of warfare between these cities, although it's possible that they fought tribal wars outside the region.
In addition to cities, the Harappans also constructed large scale irrigation systems. These can be seen today in the Faisalabad region of Pakistan, where the engineers who maintain them live. The Harappans used natural waterways for irrigation, but also built many large reservoirs for additional water storage. Their canals were not just for farming, but for transportation as well. Some were even able to carry water from one end of the valley to another.
Harappan and Mohenjodaro were recognized as well-planned towns because their roadways were built out in a grid layout, connecting at right angles. The towns of the Indus Valley Civilisation possessed an excellent drainage system. The street drain was connected to every dwelling. There were also public baths where people could wash off the dust from their streets.
These two cities were also equipped with markets where farmers from surrounding areas would bring their products to sell. And since they were located on major trade routes, they had abundant supplies of everything needed for daily life: food, cloth, tools...
The existence of these two large, well-planned cities has led some archaeologists to believe that South Asia may have been ruled by a central government with officials who made decisions based on what we now call planning laws.
However, this is only a theory. No one knows for sure how or why these cities were built. Some researchers think they might have been used as royal burial grounds until something happened which prevented more bodies from being buried there. After that time, they were left abandoned.
Even though they are no longer inhabited, many people make their way to these cities each year to see them with their original inhabitants. Some tourists even take souvenir photos in front of those who claim to be the last remaining residents.