The standard diameter range is between 9.5mm and 37.5mm. Fine aggregates are often sand or crushed stone with a diameter of less than 9.55mm. The most frequent aggregate size used in construction is 20 mm. In mass concrete, a greater size, 40mm, is more frequent. Coarse aggregates are usually larger than 37.5mm.
The density of rock varies depending on its composition but it typically falls in the range 2-4kg/m3. The specific gravity of common granite is about equal to that of water so 1 kg of granite weighs exactly 1 kilo (or 0.907 grams).
Aggregate is used to make roads, bridges, and buildings. It can also be used as filler in concrete for weight loss or increased strength. The quality of the aggregate affects how well the material will serve its purpose. For example, fine aggregate is best for making smooth pavement while coarse aggregate is best for heavy loads.
There are four basic types of aggregate: sand, gravel, crushed rock, and slag.
Sand is small rounded pieces of rock formed by the erosion of larger rocks. Sand is used for fine finishing touches such as in walkways and driveways. It makes a fine base for asphalt or concrete if added during mixing.
Coarse aggregates are particles greater than 4.75mm in size. Coarse aggregates can be separated into three main groups: gravel, rock and rubble.
Gravel consists of smooth rounded stones that can be carried in a wheelbarrow and is used as a base course or sub-base under a driveway, parking lot or playground. It provides drainage and helps prevent soil erosion. Gravel is available in several sizes from 1" to 2" for use in patios, walkways and driveways to 4" for use as border material.
Rock includes all types of natural stone such as granite, limestone, marble and sandstone that is used for countertops, flooring and wall treatments. Rock is available in many colors and styles but is generally cut into square or rectangular shapes for use as countertops.
Rubble is defined as the remaining pieces of stone after the selection of gravel and rock have been done. They include large rocks, tree branches, metal scraps and old tiles. Rubble can be used as a decorative addition to your yard or landscaped area.
Larger aggregate sizes need less cement and water. Smaller aggregates are more expensive and take up space when poured.
The strength of concrete depends on the quality of the materials used and the quantity of cement. Concrete's durability is affected by such factors as the type of material used and how it is cured (hardened) after mixing. The strength of concrete can be increased by adding steel bars or fibers. It can also be reduced by using coarse aggregate instead of fine aggregate.
Concrete's density varies depending on the type of cement used. Ordinary concrete has a density between 2700 and 3000 kg/m3. High-performance concretes can reach a density of 4500 to 5000 kg/m3. Concrete's density can be increased by adding air bubbles or lightweight aggregates. Decreasing the amount of cement used will decrease the density of the concrete.
Concrete's strength increases as it cures (hardens). When concrete first comes into contact with water, its strength is low because the hydration reaction that causes it to harden is not yet complete. As the reaction progresses, the strength of the concrete increases.
Aggregates are classified as either "coarse" or "fine." - Coarse aggregates are particles larger than 4.75mm in size. These small grains can pass through a normal 60-mesh screen.
The minimum size of coarse material that should be used as base course for soils intended for construction purposes is 4.75mm. This ensures sufficient air space for water to drain and allows adequate traction for workers when excavating building sites. The exact amount of coarse material needed depends on several factors such as soil type, climate, etc.
As a general rule, construct a layer about 6 inches (15cm) thick. For added stability, place a piece of plastic sheeting under the base course before placing more than one layer of coarse material to prevent it from drying out.
Coarse materials can be made up of rock, rubble, glass, recycled items, or dirt. They are used to build foundations and footings beneath buildings. The term "aggregate" is also used for smaller pieces of rock or gravel used as decorative surface treatment. These natural products vary in color and shape and are usually found in random sizes.