Columns, girders, beams, floor decking, and roof decking are the primary structural components. Structural components include walls. Ceilings and floors are not considered parts of the structure but rather the surface it covers. Roofs are usually made up of multiple layers of material attached to each other with adhesive or fastened together with bolts or nails.
Columns are vertical elements that support a horizontal load. In buildings they provide stability by preventing the structure from collapsing in on itself. They can be made of wood, steel, or concrete. Glass columns are used in skyscrapers as light weight structures for supporting large amounts of glass ceiling panels. Girders are horizontal elements that connect columns at different levels. They are used to create a open framework for adding wall surfaces or ceilings. Beams are long, flat elements that cross frames or roofs to provide stability. Floor joists and roof trusses are examples of beams used within the framing of a building's floor planks or roof decking.
Walls are the only element of a building that is capable of withstanding lateral force. Lateral force is pressure that acts along the length of a wall in either direction from the middle of a room.
The foundation, floors, walls, beams, columns, roof, stairs, and so on are the basic components of a building construction. These elements are responsible for sustaining, enclosing, and safeguarding the structure of the building. The type of material used to construct these elements is also important because it determines how they will perform these functions.
In this lesson, you will learn about the various types of structural elements found in buildings. You will also learn some characteristics about their performance when used in structures.
There are three main types of structural elements: load-bearing, nonload-bearing, and supporting.
A load-bearing element bears a load without collapsing. This means that it must be strong enough to support itself under normal conditions of use. Load-bearing elements include walls, ceilings, floors, and roofs. They can be made of concrete, steel, or wood, but not all concrete walls or steel frames are load-bearing. Only those with deep foundations and adequate reinforcement are considered truly load-bearing.
Nonload-bearing elements do not bear any weight but may play other roles in the structure. For example, doors, windows, and cabinets are all nonload-bearing elements that provide access to otherwise inaccessible areas within the building. Supporting elements serve to hold up other elements above them. For example, a beam supports a floor frame from below.
Structural construction components are the pieces that make up your home's basic structure. These include the roof trusses, joists, I-beams, and flooring, and can be built of wood or steel. The structural components are critical to the stability and integrity of your home. Without them, the walls and floors would have no support and everything would collapse.
The first step in building a structurally sound house is to choose quality materials. You want something sturdy like lumber from a local tree farm or timber frame building material. Next, you need to consider how you will connect these materials together. Do you plan to use metal fasteners? If so, you should select those that are designed for use with timber frames. Otherwise, you may end up with a leaky house.
As you can see, choosing quality materials and keeping in mind how they will be connected is very important for the strength and longevity of your house. Other structural components include windows and doors, which we will discuss in detail below.
Now that you know what structures your house will have, it's time to think about their function. Will this be a single family home or will it be used as rental property? This will help determine what kind of construction is required for such a house. For example, if you will be living in your house and not renting out rooms, then you do not need to worry about providing secure housing for someone else's guests.
The 12 basic components of a building structure are listed below. Understanding these components is vital to designing a structurally sound building.
Basic components of a building structure: foundation, floors, walls, beams, columns, roofs, stairs, landings.
Each component has its own requirements regarding size, strength, and quality of material that can be used in their construction. Failure to meet these requirements may result in damage or destruction of the component itself or of the building as a whole.
Building components serve three main purposes: they provide support for other components; they protect people and property from injury due to movement of other components; and they provide access for people and equipment inside the building during construction and later maintenance.
Construction components include materials used in building projects such as wood, metal, plastic, concrete, and more. Some examples of construction components include 2x4s, plates, joists, rafters, and beams. During construction, builders use tools like hammers and saws to cut down trees and shape stone and brick into buildings. After the building is complete, owners use tools like drills and jigs to install pipes and wires into building structures.
Columns, beams, slabs, and walls are the essential components of a building's superstructure. These components transport dead loads, live loads, and other loads to the substructure (foundation and plinth), which distributes them to the underlying ground in a safe manner.
Main structural varieties
Lines, surfaces, and volumes may all be structural aspects... a structural component