Planning may be divided into two categories: sectorial planning and regional planning. Sectorial planning is concerned with the development of a single industry or group of related industries. It aims to achieve maximum production with minimum expenditure. Sector plans are usually prepared by senior officials within an organization who are not involved in day-to-day management tasks.
Regional planning involves consideration of resources across several sectors, especially primary industries like mining and oil. Its aim is to ensure that development occurs where there are sufficient resources to sustain future needs. Regional planners may work at local, state, or federal levels. They often draw on information from many different sources to make recommendations regarding the future location of industries and people.
Sector plans are generally produced by senior executives within an organization who have responsibility for specific branches of activity. They may be called "sector chiefs" or "division heads." Their duties include selection of site locations and management of relocation activities. They may also have overall responsibility for certain aspects of corporate policy relating to their division(s).
Regional plans are typically prepared by officials at lower levels within government agencies or private organizations.
The three stages of intermediate planning are as follows: 1 Adoption of the business plan: This entails reviewing the different areas of the business plan and adopting those portions that are relevant to the requirements of intermediate planning. 2 Aggregate Planning: The next stage of intermediate planning is aggregate planning. Here, we look at the overall financial performance of the company over a period of time by combining information from the various plans adopted during the adoption of the business plan. For example, if the business plan calls for implementing a new product line this year that will cost $10,000 then the CEO should consider whether the company will have enough revenue to cover its expenses including any expected profits. If not, then the company won't be able to afford it.
3 Individual Planning: The final stage of intermediate planning is individual planning. Here, the CEO reviews each of the projects in the business plan with their associated costs to determine which ones can be dropped or delayed until future periods. For example, if it was determined in the aggregate phase of intermediate planning that the company won't be able to afford to launch its new product line this year then it would be appropriate to delay this activity until future periods when the company expects to have more revenue coming in.
Intermediate planning is important because it allows the CEO to make decisions based on actual data instead of assumptions.
Urban planning, also known as city planning or town planning, is concerned with a city or a delimited urban area that encompasses a city or town. A regional plan, on the other hand, might include a number of urban areas. Regional planning is an essential component of city development. Without it, cities would continue to grow unchecked, resulting in overcrowding and increased crime rates.
Regional plans are designed to guide the growth of urban areas by setting goals for population increase or decrease, preservation of open space, development of new industries, etc. They often include proposals for mass transportation such as buses or light rail, improvements for existing roads, and public facilities such as parks and libraries. The process by which these plans are developed can be either administrative or advisory. Administrative regions usually have established agencies such as metropolitan departments of transportation (MassDOT) or local councils that develop their own plans independently from any outside influence. Advisory bodies provide advice to local officials on issues before them. For example, a group of citizens may be appointed by a municipal government to review developments within its borders and make recommendations about future actions. Or a state agency may be charged with developing guidelines for local governments to follow in building large projects such as highways or stadiums.
In order for a plan to be effective, all parties involved in its development must agree on its main objectives and how they should be achieved.
Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that focuses on the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air, water, and infrastructure that passes through and out of urban areas, such as a ring of highways. Urban planning is considered to be an essential component in creating livable cities.
The major elements of urban planning are community involvement, coordination, and cooperation. Community involvement refers to seeking input from residents about what kind of community they want to live in and how it should be developed. This involves both informal and formal processes for communication between government officials and their constituents. Coordination between different agencies responsible for regulating land use, such as local governments and the state or federal government, helps avoid conflicting policies that can lead to litigation or inaction on any one issue. Cooperation among these various agencies facilitates this effort by reducing conflict between them and providing an opportunity for them to share information.
Planning practices range from simple zoning codes that regulate the use of land within a community's boundaries to more comprehensive plans that address issues such as transportation systems, environmental protection, and community facilities. Some cities with small populations may have planning departments that carry out all or most of these functions independently, while others may contract with a private firm or group of individuals to perform planning services.