Greek and Roman Classical Architecture Some of the most recognizable components of classical architecture include the Greek order of columns, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. These standards were followed by Roman architects, with the Corinthian style being the most popular and employed in many Roman structures.
Classical architecture is defined by its use of formal elements that are inherent to the design of the structure. The design of a classical building or monument must comply with certain principles that govern the arrangement of these elements. These elements include: porticos (covered walkways), stoas (public spaces between buildings where goods are traded)*, friezes (decorated panels used as wall coverings), triglyphs (three-dimensional figures carved into stone or wood used as decorative elements), and metopes (carved relief panels used as wall decorations). * In ancient Rome, stoas and triclinia (meeting rooms where guests could eat food brought to them on silver plates) were often included in classical designs.
The classical style was first introduced to Europe by Greek colonists who settled in southern Italy around 730 B.C. They built their homes out of marble, which gave the style its name (classico means "of marble"). Over time, other materials such as brick and stone became available in Europe, so classical designers began to use them instead. By 200 B.C., the classicizing style was widely adopted throughout Greece and Rome.
The term "Corinthian" refers to an elaborate column style that originated in ancient Greece and is considered one of the Classical Orders of Architecture. The Corinthian order is more sophisticated and detailed than the Doric and Ionic systems. It has six symmetrical parts: two unfluted, cylindrical shafts with a capital on top; two fluted, with a frieze and base below them. The order was named after the city of Corinth, where it was first used in large buildings around 500 B.C.
About 250 years later, another version of the Corinthian order appeared. This version had four unfluted cylinders and one fluted cylinder instead of six. It also differed from the original style in that the cap was flat rather than curved. This new style came from Egypt and was adopted by many Greek architects who wanted to distinguish their work from that of their colleagues.
Both versions of the Corinthian order are still used today, although they are rarely found in American architecture. The Doric order has generally replaced it as the most popular order in America.
Classical architecture evolved over a long period of time in several different countries. The styles were mostly similar but some differences did exist. For example, the Romans used marble for both their interior and exterior buildings while the Greeks used only wood for their exteriors.
Classical Greek architecture is split into three orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order, and the Corinthian Order. All three styles had a significant effect on later Western architecture. The Doric order was primarily used for temples and other religious buildings, while the Ionic order was typically found in commercial buildings. The Corinthian order, which is now most associated with Classical Greece, was used mainly for public buildings such as temples, but also for houses. Although much has been made of it over time, evidence suggests that Egyptian architects copied many features from European architects when designing their own structures.
The classical world ended with the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD.
However, many cities across Europe remained important centers of commerce and culture until well into the 14th century, long after the end of the classical world. These cities included Venice, Florence, and Barcelona. Italian Renaissance architecture is closely related to classical design principles using some new ideas introduced by the Arab scholars who came to Europe after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire. French Baroque style architecture takes its name from the Portuguese word "barroco", which means "strange" or "bizarre". This term was given because of the use of bright colors in the designs of the buildings then appearing in Portugal and Spain.
The Greeks constructed the majority of their temples and administrative structures in three styles: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The sorts of columns they employed reflected these styles (also known as "orders"). In general, Doric columns have a single central pillar with four smaller pillars attached to it at equal distances around its circumference. Ionic columns have an upper portion consisting of eight sections, each section being bent back on itself like the petals of a flower. Seven sections make up the body of the column and one is left over for support. Corinthian columns have a lower portion that is also eight sections long but instead of folding back on itself they taper evenly from top to bottom without any supporting pieces left over at the base.
By the 5th century BC, other types of columns were introduced into Greece, including the cypress column and the triglyphic column. The cypress column has a smooth shaft with a cross-section of roughly square blocks set into it. The triglyphic column has three distinct parts: a round shaft, a rectangular block at the top, and another rectangular block at the bottom. Both these columns were used mainly for religious buildings.
In conclusion, the Greek architects built their temples in three styles which were determined by the sort of column used.