Greece gave birth to the three architectural orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. In practice if not in name, the Romans added the Tuscan, which was simpler than the Doric, and the Composite, which was more ornamental than the Corinthian. Today these styles are regarded as part of a single order called Classical Architecture.
Doric and Ionic are both related to the Greek word doron, meaning "doorpost". They refer to two different patterns used by masons for the capital on top of a column or other structure. The Doric pattern has flat surfaces with no shaping other than perhaps a small roll at the base, while the Ionic has a shaped surface with a raised edge all around it. Both patterns were used extensively in Greece and Rome. In fact, many buildings in ancient Greece and Rome have Doric or Ionic columns supporting their roofs.
The Doric and Ionic orders are found almost exclusively on indoor structures such as temples, theaters, and palaces. They are characterized by simple lines and symmetrical shapes. The proportions of these structures are also very strict. For example, the ratio between the height and the diameter of the base of a Doric column is 1:3. This means that for every three feet you go up, there will be one foot across at the base.
Classical Greek architecture is split into three orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order, and the Corinthian Order. All three styles had a significant effect on later Western architecture. The Doric order was primarily used for temples and other large buildings; it is characterized by its weighty appearance and solidity. The Ionic order was used for columns and other smaller structures such as gates; it gives an impression of lightness and grace. The Corinthian order was used for ornamental elements such as entablatures and pediments; it adds charm to buildings by using acanthus leaves and other designs. Each order has various sub-styles. For example, the Doric order has the Dimeticane and Metopic styles.
Greek architects were also very innovative. They invented new techniques that are still used today. For example, they designed structures with hollow legs to save material. They also used marble, which at the time was expensive, so they made sculptures instead. When ships were being built with lots of space, they would put the mast in first and then fill in with wood until it reached the deck. This allowed them to use any kind of timber they wanted instead of only having oak trees around. In fact, many modern boats are still built this way in other countries because it is cheaper than building full decks all at once.
The term "Corinthian" refers to an elaborate column style that originated in ancient Greece and is considered one of the Classical Orders of Architecture. The Corinthian order is more sophisticated and detailed than the Doric and Ionic systems. It has six intersecting lines or pleats that give it great strength and stability.
The Corinthian order was widely used for public buildings such as temples and theaters, but it also appeared in private homes where it was often called "corinthian woodwork". These days, you can find remaining examples of corinthian facades throughout Greece.
Here are some photographs of surviving examples of Corinthian architecture:
Olympic Stadium in Athens (1888-176) - designed by Richard Upjohn and Antoni Gaudí
Parthenon in Athens (447-415 B.C.) - designed by Phidias
Athens Opera House (1957-63) - designed by John C. Portman Jr.
House of Parliament in Ottawa (1952-67) - designed by Arthur Erickson
Corfu Palace in Corfu (1770) - designed by Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States of America
Architecture of the Roman Empire, also called Classical Architecture, is a term used to describe the design principles and building techniques used by architects during the period of Rome's greatest power and influence. The word "classical" comes from the Greek klassisks, which means "of a kind," or "according to type." Thus, classical architecture is that which follows a typical, standard pattern or formula.
The Pantheon was one of the most important buildings in ancient Rome. It was originally built as a temple to all the gods but later used only for Christian worship. Its size can be appreciated from the fact that it had no fewer than seven entrances and could therefore accommodate many visitors at once. The base of the dome is supported by eight huge drums, each of which is made up of two shells with interlocking edges. These were brought from Syene (as today's Aswan) in Upper Egypt. Each shell is about 20 feet long and five feet wide with twenty-four such shells making up a drum.
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns are the three kinds of Roman columns. Because of the magnificent yet complicated designs utilized by Roman architects on the tops of the pillars, drawing these pillars may be a difficult undertaking. When drawing them, you want them to look precisely like the originals, which implies using very accurate measurements as well as references to other drawings or models.
Doric columns have an elegant simplicity about them that makes them the favorite among many artists. They have a square base with a flat top divided into four straight sides. The capital is the most interesting part of the column because it resembles a large flower pot attached at one end. From this point, six curved ribs rise up toward the apex, where they connect to form a perfect circle.
Ionic columns are similar to doric columns but instead of having a flat top, they have a slightly raised area called a acroterion. Also, instead of being square, the base of the Ionic column is usually octagonal. The capital is the most interesting part of the column because it also has eight curved ribs rising up from its base. But instead of connecting with their counterparts on the opposite pillar, these ribs meet at the top in what looks like a half-shell.
Corinthian columns are the most ornate of the three styles. They have a square base with a flat top divided by four angled sides.