The magnificent temples that the Greeks erected for their gods are the principal examples of Greek architecture that exist today. The Greeks constructed the majority of their temples and administrative structures in three styles: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The sorts of columns they employed reflected these styles (also known as "orders"). Doric columns have a single shaft with an enlarged base and narrow waist, Ionic have two shafts with wider waists than Doric columns, and Corinthian have fluted columns with a very wide base.
Other important buildings from ancient Greece include the Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens, which was built around 140 B.C., and the Theatre of Pompey in Rome, which was originally built in 55 B.u. C. but has been restored many times since then.
In conclusion, the Greeks were some of the most innovative builders in history, coming up with different designs for temples and theaters that no one before or since has ever thought of using. Their influence can be seen everywhere from Roman buildings to European castles to American banks.
A fourth style, Aegean, used a different column shape than those mentioned so far.
The Doric order was used most frequently and was considered the most prestigious because it was believed to be the easiest to construct and the safest to live in. It is still used today for government buildings, commercial skyscrapers, and universities worldwide. The world's first university, the Academy in Athens, used Doric architecture as well.
Ionia is now identified with what is today's Turkey, but at that time it was part of ancient Greece. Ionian architects liked to use large blocks of stone as their building material rather than the thin strips used by Doric builders. They also used fewer holes per column than their Doric counterparts. Thus, Ionian columns were less numerous and taller than those of Doric architecture. Although not as popular as the Doric order, many Ionian buildings have survived until today.
Corinthian architects built with wood instead of stone. They also used much more elaborate designs than other architects and often included sculptured capitals attached to the tops of their columns.
The classical orders—described by the designations Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—serve as an indicator to the architectural and aesthetic evolution of Greek architecture itself, not just as identifiers for the ruins of ancient buildings. The origins of these names are uncertain but may have been introduced by foreign architects or designers who worked in Greece.
Doric was the first order that developed in Greece. It is named after Doreios, a ruler of Athens who is said to have ordered the building of his city's walls with this style of architecture. Doric was used for sacred buildings (such as temples) and public structures such as theaters. It is characterized by its heavy massing, large dimensions, and relatively simple structure. The Doric order is still used today in many countries, especially for government buildings and universities.
Ionic evolved from Doric around 550 B.C. and is named after Ionians, the inhabitants of the island of Ionium in the Aegean Sea. Like Doric, Ionic was used for both sacred and secular buildings but often included more decorative elements than its predecessor. For example, Ionic temples usually had fluted columns instead of plain ones. The term "Ionic" came to be used for any ornate style of architecture.
The formal vocabulary of ancient Greek architecture, particularly the classification of architectural style into three distinct orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order, and the Corinthian Order, was to have a significant impact on subsequent Western architecture. The Greeks were also among the first to apply the concepts of proportion and harmony in design.
Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and theater, was said to have introduced several new elements into architecture, including the idea of order, symmetry, and balance. These principles are still used today in design competitions for buildings and interiors. At first, the early Greeks seemed to follow a rigid system when constructing their temples; however, later scholars discovered that they were not as uniform as first thought. For example, some temples at Argos included Doric columns while others had Ionic or Corinthian columns. Also, some temples had their colonnades attached to them with flat beams while others had scrolled beams.
In 500 B.C., the first Olympic Games were held in Olympia, Greece. Architects from all over the world attended to show off their skills. The winners were awarded prizes which included gold medals which they could take home with them.
The games lasted two weeks, beginning on August 13th and ending on August 23rd.
(Annely) There are several initiatives underway now for the renovation and preservation of old structures (see image to the right). The Greeks preferred limestone, marble, and ivory as building materials and building blocks for their temples, monuments, and sculptural decorations. Gold was used in the construction of some statues and artifacts.
Limestone is a hard, white stone found in many parts of Greece. It was often cut into thin strips or carved into various shapes and sizes for use as building material. Marbles were also widely used by the Greeks. They are soft stones that were collected from different places around Greece. Ivory was also used as a material for building projects; it was obtained from the tusks of elephants that were killed for their ivory. Bronze was used to manufacture tools and other equipment needed for building projects.
The ancient Greeks built many great structures that still stand today. Their most famous monument is probably the Parthenon in Athens; it was built between 447-438 B.C. This magnificent temple was used for religious ceremonies; it was also one of the main venues where students could compete in music, poetry, and drama contests called "elaea".
The Athenians used stone as well as wood for their buildings. They built their city with a large number of walls and gates; some of these remain even today.
Roofs of Ancient Greek Temples The ancient Greeks also constructed public buildings with larger and more complex roofs, such as temples. As a result, marble roofing tiles were used on the greatest temples, such as the Temple of Zeus. The pediment is the triangular gable on ancient Greek architecture. It often had an image of the god to which the temple was dedicated engraved or painted upon it. The pediment was used for decorating purposes only; it did not provide any protection from the elements.
There are two main types of roofs that appear on Greek temples: the hip and the flat. In both cases, they were made of wood and covered with clay tiles. However, the design of the joints between the boards or stones used in their construction was different. The hip roof has a curved end on one side only, while the flat roof has curved ends on both sides. The hips of some temples were later modified by the addition of a second curve above the first one. This kind of roof is called "tented" or "diplos".
The Greeks built many large temples, usually devoted to a single deity. One of the most important examples is the Temple of Zeus in Olympia. The original structure was built around 750 B.C. but it was destroyed by fire in 548 B.C. After this disaster, its architects designed another version of the temple with similar dimensions but without columns.