The growth in urbanization in China was one of numerous consequences of agricultural surpluses (farming and pastoral dependency). In order to reduce these deficits, rural families had to move to cities in search of employment. This migration has created a flow of people into towns and cities, where they become part of the majority population for which there is no room within the traditional family unit.
This pattern of growth can be seen as early as 1000 AD, when evidence suggests that some farmers moved out of agriculture and into town life. At this time many towns were established along trade routes with populations often made up of merchants or workers for those routes.
In the 14th century mass migrations began to occur as local governments initiated policies that encouraged citizens to move to new areas. The Qing government, for example, started this practice by offering cash rewards for people who went to work in under-developed regions. These events are thought to have led to the spread of urban culture and technology to rural China.
After the Communist Party took power in 1949, further movements into cities occurred as economic reforms were introduced. The goal was to make manufacturing more competitive with Europe and America by reducing costs such as labor and transportation.
Many major variables have influenced the speed and magnitude of China's urban expansion, including late-70s economic reforms, within-country migration regulations, expanding urban-rural income gaps, excess agricultural employees, and farmland conversion for urban use. Overall, these factors have acted to accelerate the pace at which China has become a more urbanized country.
Urbanization in China has been driven primarily by economic factors. With an increase in the number of people moving from rural areas to cities, there has been a need for employment opportunities in the growing economy. Along with this need, there has been a decline in the amount of land available for farming due to industrial development and the need for food production to feed the increasing population. In response to this availability of jobs but lack of land, many farmers have moved to cities in search of work. This trend is known as "pull" factor influence on urbanization.
There are also factors that force people out of rural areas and into cities. One such factor is poverty. If a farmer cannot afford to pay for rent or utilities in a new city location, he or she will be forced to find other means of earning a living. Involuntary migration is also caused by natural disasters that destroy homes and businesses, causing people to look for alternative locations without being able to return home.
The more a city expands, the more job possibilities it creates. Urban expansion is caused by both rural-urban migration and a natural rise caused by more births than deaths in cities. Urbanization is a component of China's economic development, which is accelerating. By 2050, it is estimated that 70% of the population will live in cities.
China's economy is growing too fast to accommodate its current level of production and consumption. In order to meet this demand, the country needs to expand its manufacturing capacity through additional investment in factories and infrastructure. However, much of the land available for development is already occupied, so expanding into rural areas is not an option. The only way for China to grow its economy at a high rate while maintaining its environment is through urbanization.
Cities use up less land and produce fewer greenhouse gases than rural areas. They are also better equipped to handle industrial pollution. Urban areas have higher employment rates and therefore more money to spend on products and services. These factors make cities more attractive places to invest in order to create jobs.
Cities also offer greater opportunity for individuals. There are more jobs in cities, so you can find work quickly if you are looking for employment. In addition, cities offer more entertainment options so people want to live there.