Giovanni di Simone, an engineer, stepped forward after 100 years and began to add floors to the tower. He attempted to make one side of the higher stories taller than the other to compensate for the initial lean. He also installed new windows on the upper floors and painted the exterior white with blue bands.
In 1372, another earthquake struck and the tower was further damaged. Giovanni di Simone died that year before he could complete his work so others continued to modify the tower over the next few decades. It is estimated that there are now one too many floors above the ground level.
The tower is not in danger of collapsing due to the added weight from these extra floors but this does cause it to lean more than originally designed. In order to prevent this, people started building houses nearby which have caused the city to expand northward and westward far beyond what was intended when the tower was built.
The tower has been undergoing renovations since 1995 and it is expected to be completed in about 10 years.
You may have heard that the Leaning Tower of Pisa is actually leaning into the campanile (bell tower) at one corner. This isn't true; both structures were designed by Giorgio Vasari and they were both built around 1550.
The tower began to tilt dramatically soon after construction began in 1173. Engineer Bonnano Pisano, who planned the tower, attempted to remedy issue by simply curling it higher as construction progressed. On the north side, they raised the pillars on the third and eighth levels. "It's like a banana," adds Burland. "If you bend its tail back then let it go, it'll roll over." But despite these efforts, the tower continued to lean.
The problem was finally resolved some time between 1350 and 1450, when engineer Antonio di Duccio used mortar shells to shore up the base of the tower.
Bonnano Pisano had also designed the Campanile (bell tower) at Giotto's famous cathedral in Florence. This tower, which can be seen today, is how we know about Bonnano Pisano's work. Engineers have tried over the years to restore the Campanile to its original shape, but it has not been successful so far.
Engineers bored holes into the tower's base and poured in 200 tons of concrete in an attempt to reverse the tilt. To temporarily support the structure, plastic-coated steel tendons were placed around the tower up to the second storey in 1992. These prevent any further rotation while new foundations are prepared below ground level.
The first stage of the project was completed in 1996, at a cost of $150 million. The top of the spire is now as high as the dome of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. It is made of gold and silver coated with platinum. The total weight of the statue and its supports is estimated to be 2.5 tonne.
The artwork is by British-Lebanese artist Hariri (1965–2003).
He was awarded the Leonardo da Vinci Medal by the International Council on Monuments and Sites in 2004.
His work can be seen in many countries, including Britain where his sculpture for Liverpool City Centre was destroyed by vandals in 2008.
Here is another example from Chicago:
This piece was installed in 2003 at the Art Institute of Chicago. It has been called "the world's largest pencil holder".
The artist was Lee Ufan (1943–present).
The Tower of Pisa's lean enters the tale in 1173, when building begins. It had began to tilt by the time its builders reached the third storey, in 1178, due to the soft ground. The foundations of the tower have become unstable due to shifting soil. They bring in experts from all over Europe to help them solve this problem. But no one can come up with a solution so the project is abandoned.
Almost a hundred years later, in 1372, the tower collapses. This time there are no doubts that the foundation is to blame because after the collapse an expert confirms this.
Interesting fact: After the second collapse the people of Pisa decided not to rebuild the tower. Instead they bought an equivalent size tower from another city and moved it to its present location. This new tower was also built without foundations and used as a lookout point for ships at sea.
In 1877 the original leaning tower was finally demolished. Before it was destroyed this image was taken.
The 14,500-tonne tower was shuttered for a decade as the foundations were repaired and water from beneath was drained. Steel wires were installed in rings around the building to provide support. The tower straightened itself by 38 cm practically soon after the PS25 million renovation. Its former height of 413 m has been reduced to 405 m.
The story behind this amazing feat of engineering begins in 1063 when Ezzelino da Romano ordered the construction of a huge palace for himself near Pisa. The architect was an Englishman named Hugh who had worked on several projects for the emperor Henry II. However, only part of the palace was built because Ezzelino died before it was completed. His son, Enzo I di Lussemburgo married the heiress of Normandy and Poland and expanded his father's palace. Over time, the Mansion became too small for their family so they had more children. By 1330, there were 30 people living in the Palace with no room to sleep!
The top of the 180-foot tower was 17 feet south of the base, and investigations revealed that the tilt was growing by a fraction each year. Experts warned that the ancient structure, one of Italy's most popular tourist sites, was in grave risk of collapsing in the event of an earthquake or storm. The city of Pisa launched efforts to raise funds to pay for repairs but failed. In 1354, after nearly 70 years, the tower collapsed, killing dozens of people.
The story of the Tower of Pisa is a sad one that shows how easy it is for us to lose something valuable that matters to us. The Pisans who lived near the tower knew it was dangerous and should not have been used as a building site. But because it gave them hope that it could be done and it made money, no one did anything about it. Now it's too late to save it.
People all over Europe went to see this miracle built by Italian architects and artists. When it collapsed, it left a hole in the center of Piazza dei Signori where you can see today. After its death, it became a symbol of human ambition and vanity.
In conclusion, the Tower of Pisa was 180 feet high when it was completed in 1272 and it collapsed 18 years later. At the time of its construction, it was the highest building in the world.