Their town homes, or public constructions, are known as longhouses and are made of dovetailed timbers with bark roofs. They were typically built atop massive man-made mounds to protect against flooding. Their typical dwellings were rectangular and long enough to house several families. The walls were made of thin logs that were daubed with a mixture of mud and animal fat for extra strength and protection from intruders.
The Quapaw built their villages near large rivers so they could take advantage of the fishing opportunities there. Because they didn't have any metal tools, they made everything else out of wood including weapons, tools, and vehicles. They used what resources we have today to make things even though it might not be very efficient yet. For example, one can still see some of their old homes in Arkansas where they made use of all the trees around them.
In 1766, the French government granted a tract of land on the Mississippi River to an army officer named Louis Juchereau de St. Denis. He called his new territory Louisiana and had it officially recognized by the French government the following year. In 1803, after years of fighting with both the English and American colonies, France gave up its claim to this land and it became part of the United States. However, many of the indigenous people weren't ready to give up their lives here just yet so they moved west across the country into Indian Territory (what we now call Oklahoma).
Longhouses were used by the Iroquois. These were long rectangular structures with wood framework and bark coverings. They might be up to 100 feet long. A community might contain multiple longhouses, which were frequently encircled by a palisade barrier. The interior of the longhouse was divided into families' quarters. There you would find beds for everyone living there.
The longhouse had many advantages over a home made out of sticks or logs. It was much more stable because it had no foundation. Also, there was enough space inside for everybody to sleep in comfort. And if someone got sick or injured, they could easily be moved to another part of the longhouse where they would be better looked after.
There are many drawings and paintings from the time when the Europeans first came across the Iroquois. They all show similar-looking houses with several rooms, even though we know now that each longhouse usually only had one room.
If you look at old photographs of villages where many longhouses can still be seen today, you will notice that they often have their sides aligned along the road way. This is because the villagers knew that their best chances of being visited by traders or explorers were during these times when the roads were most likely to be used.
Iroquois women wore clothing that consisted of shirts and pants.
They resided in wigwams, which were oval-shaped dwellings constructed of braided reeds. For stability, they were wrapped with wood sticks. The closely coiled reeds provided a strong, waterproof roof. A community would have a lot of these dwellings. They could also be made of mud bricks or timber frames.
In addition to the wigwam, the Miami people had other types of housing for special purposes. The sinuosity of their river made it convenient to build canals for transportation and trade. These canals might be anywhere from 10 feet to over 100 feet wide and up to 20 feet deep. The best known is the Illinois River Canal, which ran along part of what is now Chicago. It was built by the French in 1724 to transport grain to Fort Saint Louis, but was abandoned after only a few years due to its poor condition.
The Miami people also had large villages where all the men didn't live in the same place. Some of them lived with their wives and children, while others lived alone and were likely old men who were leaders within their communities.
Finally, there were small camps that the Miami people would travel in when they went on hunting trips or war parties. This would allow them to stay in one location for several days or weeks at a time without being too crowded or having to live in inferior housing.
A typical residence was built in the shape of a circle 15 to 45 feet in diameter. The walls were constructed from paired poles that were inclined outward and then linked to other pieces of wood to form a cone-shaped roof. The roof was then covered with bark, and the walls were maybe covered with bark and/or wickerwork. There are examples of homes where the walls are made of stone but most seem to be composed mainly of wooden posts with bark or thatch on the outside.
The Adena used sticks and bones to make tools. They chopped down trees for timber and burned them for fuel. They also dug up coal by scraping away dirt with shovels made from bone or horn.
The Adena lived in the eastern part of what is now Ohio. Their houses were mostly found near old coal deposits that had been burned as fuel by their ancestors. Today these areas are known as glades because they look like big clearings in the forest.
The Adena built many large structures in and around their settlements. Some were probably ceremonial centers while others may have been used for storage or even as schools.
The largest known structure built by the Adena is called a city. It's estimated to have had a population of about 20,000 people! This makes the Adena one of the first civilizations in North America.
These structures were constructed from a cone-shaped frame of wooden poles, which was occasionally put over a basement-like depression cut into the earth. The structure would then be draped with long rushes or mats fashioned from tule reeds. Pomo dwellings seemed smaller than they were because they were partially subterranean. The entrance was through a small hole, which was covered by a curtain made of woven grass.
Dwellings like these were used by the Pomo for ceremonial purposes as well as for sleep. Because they didn't have enough material to make anything else, the Pomo sometimes traded goods with other tribes. In return, they received blankets and armor made from deer skin. They also sold some of their surplus crops to traders who came to barter metal tools and weapons for fruits and vegetables.
In time, these simple one-room dwellings gave way to more complex structures. Some Pomo villages had streets with lined up homes, while others had only clusters of dwellings in different parts of the camp.
The Pomo became increasingly dependent on trade for their goods. So when California came under Spanish rule, they were devastated by diseases (especially tuberculosis) and warfare that killed most of their population. By 1820, only 755 Pomo remained. They mostly lived along the lower reaches of the Russian River where there were plenty of resources for hunting and gathering.