Gothic architecture was a pan-European style that flourished between the mid-12th and 16th centuries. It is typically defined as a brick architectural style that makes extensive use of vast spaces with walls broken up by superimposed tracery. Rib vaults are common architectural characteristics. The term "gothic" comes from the German word gottesfürchten, which means "to be afraid of God".
During the 11th century, architects in Europe began to build churches with naves and aisles instead of a single large space. The new design allowed for greater separation of priests and congregants, but it could only be achieved through use of additional columns inside the building. These interior columns interfered with vision between their capitals and their intersection with the roofline, so they were given an ornamental appearance. They also served to strengthen the structure by transferring weight away from the walls.
The earliest Gothic buildings date back to about 1230. However, they were not widely adopted until many years later, when builders became more familiar with this new style. By the late 13th century, Gothic architecture was used in most European cities with large populations. It remained popular into the 15th century before giving way to other styles such as Renaissance and Baroque.
Churches built during this time period usually have a central tower or spire.
Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) was a popular architectural style in Europe from the late 12th century through the 16th century, spanning the High and Late Middle Ages, with some examples surviving into the 17th and 18th centuries. Buildings in this style are named for their resemblance to pointed Gothic churches, such as the German Neues Reichshof or New Royal Palace built by Charles IV near Prague. The term "gothic" has since come to describe any building with similar features, whether actually constructed during this era or not.
In English-speaking countries, the term "gothic hotel" is commonly used to describe a small hotel or boarding house that was built in a Gothic Revival style. These hotels were very popular in England after the Napoleonic Wars, when grand country houses were in demand by the wealthy industrialists. They typically have few more than 10 rooms, which may include single rooms (known as "sitting rooms" because guests could sit and wait for a room to become available), dining rooms, drawing rooms, and other amenities. The term "gothic castle" is also often used to describe such a hotel, but although many castles were built in the Gothic Revival style, they were usually much larger than these smaller hotels.
Gothic style architecture was developed in the 13th century across Europe, including England. It is so named because it takes its design from the Gothic cathedral. The main features are pointed arches, vaults, and stained glass.
Canterbury Cathedral is one of the most beautiful Gothic buildings in England. It was built between 1220 and 1515 by Archbishop Thomas Becket (1118-1170). The cathedral has been described as the masterpiece of English Gothic architecture. It is considered to be the finest example of French Gothic style architecture in Britain. The interior of the cathedral is filled with many treasures that were taken from all over Europe after the Norman conquest in 1066. These include the original roof beams which are now used for decorating the nave.
Outside the cathedral are several interesting things to see. There is an ancient palm tree which was brought from South America in 1553. It still lives behind the high altar where it provides shade for visitors. Then there is the Bishop's Palace which was originally built in 1180 but has been renovated many times since then. It is a remarkable building with a large courtyard and 18th-century frontage added to it.
While the Gothic style varies depending on location, age, and kind of structure, it is frequently distinguished by five major architectural elements: huge stained glass windows, pointed arches, ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, and rich ornamentation. These features were adopted to maximize light and visibility inside churches. They also helped to support the heavy roofs needed to protect the congregation from the elements.
Gothic architecture was established in Europe around 1150 and became popular throughout most of the continent during the 12th century. At this time, religious institutions were building up their collections of manuscripts and books which required strong structures to protect them. The Gothic style arose as a response to the need for larger, stronger buildings. Its creators took advantage of new techniques for cutting stone and wood, including dovetail joints, cranked hinges, and inclined planes (slopes) used to lift objects such as beams and stones.
During the 13th century, the Gothic style entered North America where it was adapted to local conditions. In cities like Montreal and Toronto, many Gothic buildings have been preserved over the years without any alteration or modification. In rural areas, settlers built with materials available locally including timber, brick, and dirt. They also employed native Americans as laborers who knew how to use these materials effectively. These factors combined to create a style of architecture unique to each location.
Gothic architecture is as diverse as it is formidable, ranging from medieval castles to Victorian houses. Vaulted ceilings, arched windows, and decorative embellishments like flying buttresses and the odd leering gargoyle are hallmarks of this dramatic design. The Gothic Revival style was popular in the early 19th century, when wealthy Americans wanted to emulate the European aristocracy. It was also used as a reaction against the Industrial Revolution and its associated technological advances like mass production and the division of labor.
During this time, architects began to envision new ways to house large families in urban centers. They did so by taking advantage of new developments in building materials and technology. For example, concrete, which had just been invented, allows for much taller buildings than would be possible using brick or stone. Steel supports are embedded inside the walls at regular intervals to prevent them from collapsing under their own weight. This type of construction is known as frame building because it uses wooden beams that form the basis for the entire structure.
The Gothic Revival style was also used to describe certain homes built during this time period. These were usually large estates with many rooms, lots of glass, and elaborate molding. They resembled small castles with their high ceilings and darkened interiors. Outside the house, there might be towers, spires, or other decorative features.
Its cruciform layout, raised nave, transept, and tower were inspired by Romanesque architecture from the 11th century, but its pointed arches and rib vaulting were distinctively Gothic. It was, indeed, one of the first Gothic churches to have arched external supports known as "flying buttresses." The name "Gothic" is applied to many different styles of architecture that developed in Europe following the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century. But the Gothic style that evolved at Notre Dame was especially radical in its use of natural light and ventilation, flying buttresses, and slender columns with intricate capitals.
Goths were innovators who invented new techniques which others adopted. For example, they used colored glass in windows for the first time in Europe, and they also used stained glass where parts are colored by firing while other parts remain clear glass. Both innovations are found at Notre Dame. Red and green are the traditional colors of Gothic architecture, so these colors are featured frequently at the cathedral. But any color can be used if appropriate materials are available.
The original builders of Notre Dame were French monks from Normandy who came to France after the invasion in 1066. The monastery they founded on an island in the River Seine was soon populated by scholars who taught theology and science to kings and princes. In the 12th century it became a cathedral city itself, and this role continued until 1575 when King Charles IX ordered all the monasteries closed and their lands confiscated.