Code 5213 pertains to all commercial types of concrete building construction, including selfbearing floors, foundations, piers, silos, grain elevators, dams, locks, and so on, and encompasses form manufacturing and erecting, reinforcing steel placement, and form stripping. It also includes the inspection of forms after reinforcement has been placed in them and any other procedures required by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) for the safe removal of forms.
This code section applies to all buildings over 7,500 square feet in area or with a gross weight of 70,000 pounds or more. Buildings under 7,500 square feet or with a gross weight less than 70,000 pounds are covered by Section 0520.
Forms used in concrete construction must be inspected regularly during construction for evidence that they have been damaged by excessive strain. Any damage to a form that may cause it to fail in use must be repaired immediately before another form is put into place. Damaged forms should not be used again until they have been repaired.
If a form fails during use, the entire contents of the form must be removed even if some of the concrete within it is sound. The damaged portion of the form should be cut away and replaced with new material. If part of the form is still sound, there is no need to remove it.
Forms are usually constructed of wood or steel.
Building code regulations typically apply to the construction of new structures, renovations or additions to existing buildings, changes in building use, and destruction of buildings or sections of buildings that have reached the end of their useful or economic life. Codes also may cover the storage of hazardous materials.
The building codes establish minimum standards for the safety of people who live or work in buildings. These codes can protect occupants by requiring adequate fire protection, structural integrity, and other features such as windows that allow in sufficient light while preventing the entrance of any foreign objects such as stones or wood that could damage interior facilities. They also can be used by officials to monitor the quality of construction projects as well as to enforce building standards.
Building codes affect the design and implementation of projects through required features, maximum size limits, and other limitations. For example, areas within a building that are expected to experience high heat levels or large amounts of smoke may need additional fire protection measures implemented during the construction process (such as fire-resistant materials for walls and flooring). Limitations on the number of people allowed per room or unit are another example of how building codes can influence project design. The codes require that certain minimum distances be maintained between rooms to prevent ill effects due to noise pollution or air contamination from one area of the building to another.
Building codes are rules that regulate the design, building, changes, and upkeep of structures. These standards provide the bare minimum for protecting the health, safety, and welfare of the building's inhabitants. Codes also aid in preventing accidents by requiring certain procedures to be followed during construction and maintenance activities.
The primary goal of the building code is to ensure public safety by regulating construction practices. The code should not be viewed as a restriction on creativity or innovation in architecture but rather as a set of requirements that must be met before a structure can be used safely for its intended purpose. Codes also help maintain quality buildings by controlling demolition techniques, site work preparation, and other factors that can affect the stability of a structure.
Building codes have been developed by national organizations such as the International Code Council (ICC) and state agencies such as the Massachusetts Building Code Commission (MBCC). These groups work with architects, engineers, contractors, owners, and others involved in building projects to develop guidelines that balance structural integrity with other concerns such as cost effectiveness and modernization of materials.
Some states require new homes to be built to their local building code while others do not. Some cities may have additional regulations that go beyond the state code. For example, Chicago requires new buildings over 9 stories high to be built with fireproof construction.
Building occupancy classifications relate to the categorization of structures based on their use and are mostly used for building and fire code enforcement. They are often defined by model building codes and vary slightly amongst them. For example, part 1 of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 10E sets forth guidelines for construction of office buildings, while part 2 deals with residential buildings. Occupancy classes should not be confused with hazard classes which describe the severity of damage that a fire could cause to an area.
Occupancy classes determine how a structure is classified with regard to safety requirements and other factors related to health and comfort in the workplace. The two most common occupancy classes are "live/work" and "dead". A live/work space is one in which people typically go about their daily lives while working at their desks or otherwise engaged in work-related activities. In this type of space, it is important that workers have easy access to fresh air and natural light and that they are not exposed to harmful substances such as toxic materials or noxious gases. Dead spaces on the other hand, are those that are not being used for work-related activities. Such spaces may include storage rooms, empty offices, and private offices. In these cases, the main concern is protection from exposure to smoke and heat during fires. The occupancy of a space can change over time as projects are completed or abandoned.