The flag was a horizontal square with red highest and, in the center of the white field, an emblem made of a wreath of laurel ornamented with a trophy of arms and four arrows, signifying the Republic's four provinces. The emblems were put there by Filippo Garamendi, president of the republic when it was adopted on 17 March 1861.
The Latin motto Eius Libertas (-"Her Freedom") appears below the emblem in gold on a blue background. This is taken from the Proclamation of Rome, issued by the Senate upon the establishment of the Roman Republic in 509 BC. The original version of this proclamation ordered that the tribunes should declare freedom for all citizens within the Roman territory.
In 1951, the Italian government abolished the monarchy and replaced it with a federal republic. As part of its program, the new government decided to omit the royal insignia from the flag to demonstrate the separation of church and state. The old royal standard was given a place of honor in the Hall of Flags at the National Museum of Rome.
The design of the current flag was proposed by Giuseppe Petralia Turini and adopted in 1911. It features a red shield with a white stripe across the top and a blue stripe across the bottom; these represent the colors of the Italian flag.
The design incorporates the colors of the Dutch flag with a horizontal bicolor of red and blue with the coat of arms of Sint Maarten on a white chevron. The red symbolizes unity and courage, the blue tranquility and certainty of forgiveness, and the white purity and faith. These qualities are seen as important in a flag to represent a country.
The coat of arms is based on a seal that was used by the Lords of Brielle during the 17th century. They were merchants from Amsterdam who settled in New York City after being expelled from St. Maartin. The lords built a house on Duke Street in Manhattan where they would meet to discuss business affairs. This house is now known as "The Castle" and is a museum devoted to telling the story of Sint Maarten.
Sint Maarten became a national park in 2011. It is the only French department that is also an overseas territory and thus has its own government and parliament.
The island has two distinct geographical areas: a low-lying north coast with many beaches and cays, and a high central plateau with pine forests and cattle farms. There are several large cities on the island including Philipsburg, which is the capital. It is located on the north coast near France. About 75% of the island is covered by forest.
The Official Icon The fundamental colors of the flag, as previously stated, are white and red. The white cross in the middle of the flag has equal-length arms. The red stripe down the center of the white cross represents Switzerland's blood stain: the battle-scarred landscape of this country was once covered with thousands of these crosses.
Other colors appear in the icon, but they are merely accents. The blue circle with a white five-pointed star in the center stands for freedom and peace. The yellow sun with black rays rising from its center is meant to symbolize sunlight and power. And the green tree with white branches and leaves represents nature and vegetation.
The colors of the flag were chosen by public vote in 2002. Previously, the flag was white with a red cross on it (since 1858).
Switzerland has no official national anthem, but there are several popular songs that are used as anthems by various groups. The most famous of these songs is "O Suisse, ouest-europeen" ("O Switzerland, western European"), which was written in 1852 by Michel Carré and Paul de Musset. This song is often used at international sporting events when Switzerland is participating.
A yellow-vertically split yellow-white national flag with a white stripe with an emblem of two crossed keys and a papal tiara. The dimensions of the flag are square. It was adopted on 23 February 1973.
The keys represent the keys to heaven that Pope John Paul II is believed to have brought back from his visit to Poland in 1979. They are seen as a reminder to all Catholics that they must follow Jesus Christ and His teachings to reach salvation and enter heaven when they die.
The papal tiara represents the Holy See and the headship of the Catholic Church. It also denotes that the Pope is the leader of all Christians not just Catholics.
The colors of the Vatican flag are those of the Papal State. They represent faith, hope and charity. Yellow is the color of faith in Christianity while white stands for peace and purity.
About one third of the world's 1.2 billion Catholics live in Italy, Germany, and Mexico. Most of them live in Europe but there are large populations of Latin Americans who travel to Europe to work and send money home.
In addition to these three countries, there are about 70 other nations around the world that have Catholic majorities.
Design and symbolism. The Soviet Union's flag was a basic red flag with a gold hammer crossed with a gold sickle under a gold-bordered red star. This emblem may be seen in the red flag's top left canton. It replaced the old Russian flag after the 1917 Revolution.
The first Soviet government adopted a white flag with a red border as its national flag. This flag was used until it was replaced by the current red flag with a gold border and a red star in 1922.
The former USSR flags were 24 inches by 36 inches, while the current one is 33 inches by 54 inches.
There are several theories on how the red flag with a black star came to be. One theory is that it represents the blood spilled during the French Revolution. Another theory is that it represents darkness turning into light or night becoming day. A third theory is that it represents death giving way to life or destruction of slavery. However, there is no clear explanation as to why it has eight points instead of the usual nine.
Soviet soldiers were taught to salute the red flag. If someone did not do so, he was given a punishment called "falling under the flag's spell". This meant that he had become loyal to the country's new ideology and was punished by being sent to a labor camp or executed by firing squad.