A dripping riser pipe Where more than one riser is necessary for each floor, the distance between the risers should be no more than 60 metres apart. In any upper stage riser, the distance between the lowest and highest landing valve shall not exceed 60 metres. The maximum height of a top drive or jack up rig used in offshore drilling operations is 40 metres.
A dripping main line pipe Where more than one main line is necessary for each floor, the distance between the mains should be equal to the distance between the risers. In any upper stage main line, the distance between the lowest and highest outlet valve shall not exceed 60 metres.
An electric sub-panel For electrical distribution and control purposes, each well site requires at least one electric sub-panel. These are compact enclosures that contain all the electrical components needed to supply power to lights, radio antennas, pumps, and other appliances on the surface facility. A sub-panel must be mounted on the surface facility if it contains equipment that could be damaged by high voltage electricity (for example, air compressors). Sub-panels can also be located inside wells. In this case, they provide power for instruments and other ancillary equipment (telephone circuits, television cameras, etc.).
An emergency generator Set aside in advance, this is a back-up system for use in case of loss of power from the main station.
Wet risers are used in new structures above 50 meters in height or where a suitable breeching intake site for a dry riser is impossible to provide. Wet rising mains are designed for usage by the fire department or other qualified people. They are connected to the building's water supply and include shut-off valves located at the base of the structure.
The main purpose of a wet riser is to provide an alternative route for firefighters to reach high-up smoke damaged floors. Once activated, the system provides pressurized drinking water to those on the burning floor. The water is distributed through small hoses that run along the ceiling or wall until they reach fire fighters standing in front of certain doorways.
Wet risers are different from dry risers which will be discussed below. With a wet riser, live electrical wires are left exposed within the ceiling space during construction or renovation. These wires are then attached to the wall outlet when the construction is complete. In contrast, dead electrical wiring is hidden behind panel boxes or inside walls during construction. The outlets used with dry risers are also different from those used with wet risers. Outlets used with dry risers can take several forms including pendant units that hang from the ceiling or wall outlets that are built into the flooring material itself.
Wet risers were commonly used in older buildings before smoke detectors became common.
A landing valve should be placed such that its lowest point is approximately 750 mm above the floor level. Fire mains should preferably be protected by and put within a BS5041-4-compliant box. Landing valves for dry mains should be in accordance with BS 5041-2.
The normal position for a landing valve is closed but it can be opened to discharge water if needed. Landings are usually controlled from a panel located near the street or some other public area. They can also be controlled from a remote location by telephone line or electrical cable.
In commercial buildings, especially where there are many floors above ground level, it is important to protect the main supply pipe from damage caused by heavy loading objects being dropped onto them. This is done by installing a drop pipe at this point in the distribution system. The drop pipe should be large enough to allow water to drain out when the valve is open. It should be located below the highest floor in the building and should enter the wall at a height of between 1.8 m and 2.5 m from the floor level.
Dry risers are used where there is no available space near the property boundary for a buried riser system. These pipes run across the roof of the building and their top ends are connected to the distribution system.
The height of the stair risers shall be no more than 7 inches (178 mm) and no less than 4 inches (102 mm). The riser height is determined by measuring vertically between the nosings of neighboring treads. The maximum permitted rise is 8 feet (244 cm).
The standard step rises are 5/8 inch (15 mm) and 3/4 inch (19 mm). Risers can be any size within these limits, but they must be equal in size. Steps with different-size risers are not allowed.
The term "step" as used in this standard refers to the raised portion of a staircase that provides support for each step of the staircase. The steps themselves may be of any width or shape, as long as there is a clear space between them when viewed from the top of the staircase.
The term "staircase" as used in this standard refers to all the steps, landings, and other features that make up a staircase. Stairs are an important part of any building and can be used for many different purposes. This standard covers the design requirements for steps used in residential buildings.
This standard was developed by the Architecture Foundation in cooperation with the National Society of Professional Engineers and the Steel Framing Alliance. It is issued under the authority of AS 9111.1:2005 - 01.04.
If the building has a floor level more than 18m but less than 50m, or if the levels are more than 10m below ground, the fire main can be either dry or wet. When a structure is taller than 50 meters, the ascending main must be moist. The distance between floors must be at least 1.8 times the maximum height of the building for stability reasons.
The minimum requirement depends on the type of material used to construct the riser. For concrete risers, at least 20cm of water should be maintained in the tank at all times. For metal and plastic risers, this amount increases to 30cm.
The maximum requirement depends on the type of material used to construct the riser. For concrete risers, the tank should not be filled beyond 95% capacity. For metal and plastic risers, this limit does not apply.
Wet riser systems provide higher fire ratings because they conduct away heat more effectively. They also serve as an early warning system in case of fire.
Dry riser systems require periodic watering to maintain their effectiveness. This is usually done by hand with a garden hose or automatic waterer. Make sure that you follow manufacturer's instructions about how often you need to water your riser system to keep it working properly.
Metal risers resist corrosion better than concrete ones and therefore require less maintenance.