Two architectural landscape elements found in the grounds of an English country house conceived and built between the 17th and 19th centuries are a ha-ha and a folly. Later in the time, Gothic and Chinese architectural elements might be seen in the landscape. The term "folly" is applied to any large structure not designed for practical use; many follies were built as romantic gestures by wealthy landowners.
The term "ha-ha" comes from the French word huis clos (closed house). These openings were used by farmers to allow their livestock access to pasture during winter months when the fences were closed. If no ha-has were available, goats would make do with cutting holes in hedges or walls around their enclosures.
Goats were commonly kept at manors and farms to provide milk for cheese making and meat for food. They also made excellent watchdogs because of their aggressive nature. A goat's alarm call could be heard for miles around so people didn't disturb each other's sleep!
In medieval times, goats were usually kept inside small fenced areas called chalets. When outdoor space was limited, farmers would build large numbers of these structures and allocate each one a quota of milk every month. As soon as the quota was met, the farmer wouldn't see more of it until next year.
"Any building that allows passage over a ravine or river," says the dictionary. Old English brycge, from Proto-Germanic *brugjo (source also of Old Saxon bruggia, Old Norse bryggja, Old Frisian brigge, Dutch brug, Old High German brucca, German Brucke), from PIE root *bhru "log, beam," therefore "wooden causeway" (source also of Gaulish brug, Old High German brucca, German Brucke). The original meaning was "causeway made of logs" or "wagon bridge."
In modern English usage, a bridge is "a structure that spans a gap in order to connect two parts of a surface" (or something like that - I'm not a native speaker). A road bridge connects two sets of traffic lanes; a footbridge connects two areas of an open space; a railroad bridge connects one section of track with another; etc. Many words are borrowed from other languages to describe various kinds of bridges. For example, "viaduct" comes from Latin via ferrata and French chemin de fer.
The earliest known reference to the word "bridge" is in the 11th century, when it was used to describe a small wooden structure over a stream or river.
Later on, during the Middle Ages, bridges became more and more important elements of large cities. They were usually built by local authorities or community groups and they served many purposes: military, economic, social... You name it! During wars, for example, towns would destroy their bridges so the enemy couldn't use them to attack them.
Location/Dublin Ha'penny Bridge
The Ha'penny Bridge (/'heIpni/HAYP-nee; Irish: Droichead na Leathphingine, or Droichead na Life), also known as the Penny Ha'penny Bridge and formally the Liffey Bridge, is a pedestrian bridge erected over the River Liffey in Dublin, Ireland, in May 1816.
A bridge with arches as the primary supporting parts (see bridge illustration). The word "arch" comes from a Greek word meaning "support." An arch bridge supports itself without any internal support apart from its arches. It is therefore a very stable structure that can carry heavy loads over long distances.
The earliest known bridges were made of wood, but most modern-day bridges are made of concrete or steel. However, some wooden bridges remain in use today. The Hwangsan Bridge in South Korea is an example of a wooden bridge that has been preserved due to its location near the border with China where customs officials don't like to destroy valuable timber.
The first true arch bridge was built in 353 BC by Phidias. It was a gold and silver covered wooden bridge for the procession route connecting Athens with his hometown of Acragas (modern-day Ragusa) in Sicily. This beautiful piece of architecture had two intersecting arches made of pine trees that were joined together with wax ropes. It is said that it took more than 10,000 pine trees to build this bridge!
A landbridge is a strip of land that connects two landmasses (such as two continents or a continent and an island), or an overland route (such as by rail) for carrying cargo from a port across a country. The word comes from the Dutch language, meaning "a way or passage between two lands". In modern usage, the term is applied to any overland connection between regions or countries that are separated by water.
Landbridges have played an important role in the history of migration and trade. Before the development of shipping, land was the most efficient means of transportation, so people developed ways to travel by foot across land bridges when oceans prevented them from going by boat. These included journeys made by explorers who sought new territories, as well as more permanent settlements created by colonists who wanted to start fresh places where they could raise their families in peace.
Even today, many large projects involve the use of landbridges. For example, one section of the Trans-Siberian Railroad runs through Russia's Far East, where there are no ports of refuge on the ocean side of the track. Instead, the railroad crosses over land using Vladivostok as its western terminus and Moscow as its eastern terminus. Another example is the Channel Tunnel, which runs under the English Channel from France to England.