The act of moving architectural plans from drawings to the ground is known as setting out a building. It determines the locations of site borders, foundations, columns, wall centerlines, and other structural components. The procedures used in setting out buildings vary depending on their size and complexity. Small one- or two-story buildings are usually set out by measuring from marks called datum lines on permanent structures such as houses or barns that are already on the site. Larger buildings require more accurate measurements so they can be constructed with the proper dimensions. Datums are also used to ensure that walls, floors, and other elements are placed properly relative to each other.
Building sets out are performed to determine how much space needs to be allocated for construction purposes. Common areas such as halls, corridors, and rooms must be marked off before construction begins. Set outs are also used to locate utilities such as pipes and wires for future connections or repairs. Finally, set outs are necessary to determine where doors and windows should be located so they do not interfere with construction activities or hinder the flow of people through the building.
Setting out a building is an important part of the planning process that ensures that no unnecessary risks are taken during construction. Errors in measurement or calculation can have serious consequences if they are not detected until after parts of the building are built.
A structural design or structural plan is made up of structural details and a general organization plan or layout that is required for proper site building. All of the intricacies that we need to follow throughout site building are portrayed in these designs. The structural engineer should be consulted for advice on all aspects of structural design, but he or she will usually leave the task of designing the actual structures to be built on the project to someone else. He or she will typically only provide guidance on such things as what materials should be used and how they should be applied to achieve the desired structure.
The structural design process involves three basic steps: conceptualization, detailing and certification. During the conceptual phase, the client will be asked to describe the intended use for the structure and will have the opportunity to discuss any concerns he or she may have about possible problems with the proposed design. The structural engineer should also review any site drawings or other documents that the client may have prepared previously or may prepare himself or herself before beginning the design process. From this information, a preliminary structural design can be developed.
During the detailed design stage, the structural engineer should perform further research into construction techniques that could improve the strength-to-weight ratio of the building. This might include studying advanced materials technology or investigating prefabrication methods. The client should be informed of any changes that will affect the final cost of the project.
Setting off consists of three basic steps: The orientation of the structure on the site; Making a rudimentary outline of the building's foundation on the ground; putting "batter boards" around the shape and marking the positions of inner walls, doors, and windows on the boards. These markers will be used as a guide when filling in the exterior surface with concrete.
Once the general location of the building is set, the builder then makes a rough sketch on paper to detail the specific dimensions and shapes of the building. This sketch can also include any special features for the building, such as a second floor addition in the case of an apartment complex.
Builder's level or laser measurements are taken from the center of each board and marked on the ground with pegs or screws driven into the soil. These marks become the reference points for the concrete contractor who will later pour the foundation. The construction process varies depending on whether the building is new or remodeling existing space, but most buildings follow a similar pattern.
First, the property is surveyed to determine its exact size and shape. Then, the survey results are presented to the client for approval before any digging begins. If there are issues with the survey, they can be resolved prior to starting work by having another survey done.