The bottom layer that supports the main layer is referred to as the substrate. The phrase is frequently used in the building and remodeling industries. When discussing foundation building, the term "substrate material" frequently refers to rock, soil, and other natural materials. When referring to concrete, the word becomes the basis for the common term "concrete substrate." Other materials can serve as substrates including steel, wood, and plastic.
Substrates provide support for buildings and other structures. They can be classified according to their intended use as follows:
Rock - most commonly used as a substrate because of its availability and cost-effectiveness. Rock substrates are usually chosen because they are durable and easy to work with. Their major disadvantage is that they cannot be adjusted or modified after the structure has been built. Rock substrates include granite, marble, sandstone, and shale.
Soil - this is the default choice for a substrate if no other type of material is specified by the builder. It provides many advantages because it is readily available, inexpensive, and can be easily modified once the house has been completed. Its major disadvantage is that it does not offer much protection for the structure against water damage or flooding.
Concrete - this is the most common substrate used in foundations.
Any solid substance on which another substance is placed so that the second substance sticks to the substrate is referred to as a "substrate." The substrate type (e.g., soil, rock, clay, and so on) is one of the criteria that will define the kind of foundation utilized in foundation building. The term "foundation" means the underlying support structure for a building or other load-bearing installation.
A house built on soil is said to have a "soil foundation". It needs to be supported by some kind of deeper foundation if it is to stand up under its own weight and that of any contents it may have. Such contents could be heavy furniture or appliances which would need adequate support even when they are not being used. A house with a soil foundation does not usually require deep foundations unless there are problems with drainage or groundwater penetration.
A house built into the side of a hill is called a "hill-top" or "inclined" house. It needs an additional support underneath it to prevent it from sliding down the hill. This extra support is called a "slope" or "retaining" foundation. Hill-top houses were very common before the advent of modern building materials and techniques; today they are found mainly in areas where earthquakes are a concern or where there is much rainfall.
A house built into the side of a hill with part of the floor above ground level is called a "basement" house.
A substrate is a solid substance or medium on which another substance is applied and which clings to. Substrates include papers, cloth, glass, metal, and wood. A thin film will slide off a substrate if not attached properly; a thick film will remain on the substrate.
In physics, a substrate is any material on which a film can be deposited. The term is most commonly used to describe a base material on which a film is deposited by chemical means or physical deposition processes such as sputtering. The term "substrate" can also be used to describe the material being coated, for example, aluminum foil would be the substrate for paper bags when making lollipops.
The word "substrate" comes from the Latin substratus, meaning "clay," because clay was one of the first materials used by humans to make tools and weapons. Clay is still used today in some cases where strength under pressure is required.
Substrates can be divided up into three main groups: organic, inorganic, and semi-conducting. Organic substrates include fabrics, papers, and other biological materials. They can be alive or dead. Dead organisms can be used as substrates for experiments that require no living organisms be involved.
A concrete substrate is a concrete construction that serves as the foundation for another material. A concrete substrate can come in a number of forms and sizes, and it can be protected against harsh, corrosive conditions by a range of coatings, paints, or other materials. The phrase "concrete foundation" is often used interchangeably with "concrete substrate," but a concrete foundation is generally thought of as the underlying structure upon which concrete is poured to form a wall or other building component.
Concrete substrates are used instead of soil because they're more stable, able to bear greater loads, and less expensive than comparable natural foundations. Concrete substrates are also better at preventing water from entering buildings through footings and walls. Natural soil tends to absorb water, causing surrounding earth particles to expand and contract with moisture changes. This can lead to heaving of the land surface and erosion of lower-lying property if there's enough absorption going on. By using a concrete foundation, these problems are avoided.
There are two main types of concrete foundations: slab-on-grade and crawlspace/cellar. In both cases, the underlying structure is made of concrete with an open cell structure. The only difference is how the concrete is laid out. With a slab-on-grade foundation, the floor of the building will be flat when it's done.
A substrate is a broad term used to define the basic material onto which pictures, for example, will be printed in a conversion process such as printing or coating. Parchment or paper (lightweight, heavyweight, coated, uncoated, paperboard, cardboard, and so on) are examples of substrates.
The word "substrate" comes from the Latin sub meaning under, below, and stratum meaning layer. Thus, your skin is your substrate. The phrase "under the skin" means something hidden from view but affecting what goes on inside the body; for example, genetics play a role in developing diseases of the heart and blood vessels because of factors that come down through the family line.
Substrates can be divided up into two general groups: those that transmit light and those that don't. Reflective substrates work by reflecting light back toward the source. Transparent substrates allow light to pass through them. Opaque substrates do not allow light to pass through them.
Light-transmitting substrates are used in photography, photocopying, and other recording processes where an image is created on a sheet of paper by using different colors of light. The type of paper used affects how well it transmits light. For example, a glossy photo doesn't use glass to protect the image; rather, it uses a resin that contains small particles suspended in a liquid.