The four basic forms of terminal geometries in airport architecture are satellite (circular, rectangular, or star-shaped), linear, pier, and open apron with transporter. 13 —De Neufville: centralized or satellite finger, linear or gate arrival, and open apron/transporter. 14 —Gates, parking, and access roads are located near the terminals' central areas.
There are two main types of satellite terminals: those with one central building called the "hub" and those without a hub. In both cases, the term "satellite" refers to the fact that each aircraft landing at a large airport like Dallas/Fort Worth serves as the center for a small circle or "cell" of activity including baggage claim, security screening, food service, retail shops, etc. The cell centers around the aircraft with no specific fixed location for any particular customer, company, or brand. Each cell contains facilities necessary to complete these tasks or services.
In most cases, satellite airports are fairly new developments intended to alleviate congestion at larger airports. They usually include a single central building with administrative offices, rental cars, stores, restaurants, bars, lounges, banks, gift shops, technology labs for portable electronic devices, waiting rooms, medical clinics, childcare facilities, sports complexes for check-in golf carts, training programs for jobs at the airport, conference rooms, and public transportation to nearby cities.
The number of runways and their direction, the form of the accessible site, and limits on the site both on the ground and in the air are the primary drivers of airport layout. The location of airports within cities or other communities is also important. In some cases, this factor may be responsible for requiring many more take-off and landing cycles than would otherwise be necessary.
Other considerations include cost, community support, traffic impact, available land, environmental effects, and military requirements. An airport's location will affect which aircraft can use it, the amount of infrastructure needed, how much control city governments have over its operations, and many other aspects of airport design. For example, if an airport is located near residential or industrial areas, it might be required to operate at a lower capacity than one situated in a rural setting.
Airports are classified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) into five basic type categories: public use, commercial service, general aviation, military, and private.
Public use airports are owned by a municipality or other government agency and are used for civil aviation purposes only. There are about 350 such airports in the United States. They are usually small, with hard surfaces and minimal amenities.
Airports are divided into several categories. 1 Based on take-off and landing 2 Determined by the approach speed of the aircraft 3 In terms of function. 4 A geometric design is employed. 5 Based on aircraft wheel characteristics.
1 Functional classifications divide airports based on their purpose. Commercial airports serve passengers while military airports serve troops and vehicles. Security checkpoints are also located at these airports to search luggage and equipment for weapons or explosives. Governmental airports are used by local, state, and federal governments. These airports are usually found in large cities where traffic volumes are high. Public use airports are those that are neither commercial nor military. They provide free flights for recreational purposes such as training pilots or a place for amateur radio operators to practice transmissions. Private use airports are also available for private aircraft or helicopters to land. 2 Geometric classifications divide airports based on how they are laid out. Circles, squares, and triangles all qualify as geometric airports. The most common type of geometric airport is the circle because that's what happens when an airplane flies over a flat surface without obstacles. Aircraft need to fly at a certain distance from the edge of the circle to avoid crashing into it. 3 Approach classifications determine how close an aircraft can come to a destination airport before needing to make an approach.
An airport is made up of two basic parts: an airfield and terminals. A standard airfield has a runway for takeoffs and landings, as well as two (or one) parallel taxiing lanes (taxiway). The location of these elements on the airfield determines how the plane lands and takes off.
The terminals are where passengers check in and wait to board the flight. Each terminal usually has a ticket counter where you can buy tickets or make reservations, a baggage claim area, and sometimes a lounge where you can eat, drink, or just relax before your next flight.
Airports also have staff facilities such as fire stations, health clinics, restaurants, shopping malls, and sports centers. These are necessary because people working at airports need to eat and sleep like everyone else. Some airports have needs that require additional facilities be provided by third parties; for example, some airports have hospitals or pharmacies on-site so that patients/passengers do not have to go far for medical care.
Airports are essential elements in modern society. They provide a place for aircraft to stop while waiting for clear weather or refueling, they allow people to travel long distances quickly, and they serve as hubs for traffic around them. There are almost 800 airports in the United States alone, and they play a vital role in our economy and daily lives.
A terminal is a structure that houses passenger facilities. Small airports often have only one terminal. Large airports frequently feature many terminals, however others, such as Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, only have one. The terminal contains a number of gates that allow passengers to board the plane. Each gate is staffed by at least one check-in agent who assists passengers in checking in luggage and completing other paperwork before boarding.
Amsterdam Airport has two terminals: T1 and T2. T1 opened in 1971 and was designed by IJSBP (now RDP Architecten). T2 opened in 1995 and was also designed by RDP Architecten. Both terminals are fully air-conditioned with self-check-in kiosks and security screening stations. Travelers can purchase food and beverages, book tours, and use the ATM machine at either terminal. There is no need to change terminals to visit most destinations from Amsterdam; just pick up a map at the information desk and find your way around.
The airport serves about 55 million passengers a year and is one of the largest in Europe. It is owned by KLM and its partner airlines including Air France, Alitalia, Austrian Airlines, Brussels Airlines, Delta, EgyptAir, Lufthansa, Oman Air, Qatar Airways, Saudi Arabian Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Swiss International Air Lines, Turkish Airlines, and United Arab Emirates Airlines.