The St. Charles Church, Schonbrunn Palace, Belvedere Palace, the Old Vienna City Hall, the Imperial Stables, and many more specimens of Baroque architecture may be found in Vienna. The term "Baroque" is applied to both artistic styles that developed in Europe from about 1650 to 1720 and also to many related forms of architecture.
Barre is French for "brush". Baroque art is characterized by a dramatic use of chiaroscuro (the technique of using light and dark colors to create depth) and by a tendency toward exaggeration. In architecture, the style evolved during the late 17th century in Italy and then spread to other parts of Europe.
Some examples of baroque art: Michelangelo, David; Raphael, Venus de Milo; Titian, Mary Tudor. Some examples of baroque architecture: San Carlo al Corso, Rome; Chiesa del Gesù, Madrid; Santa Maria della Pace, Venice; Notre-Dame, Paris.
The Queluz National Palace in Portugal is an example of Baroque architecture with focus on strong spaces, domes, and huge masses. In music, the Baroque style comprises a significant portion of the classical canon. Johann Sebastian Bach, George Handel, and Antonio Vivaldi are among the most famous composers. Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raffaello Sanzio also belong to this era.
The word "baroque" comes from Portughese barocco which means "heavy or dull". This description refers to the ornate style that emerged in Portugal around 1650. The Portuguese empire covered a large part of South America and Africa, so many unique architectural styles were born from local materials and building techniques. In addition, many foreign artists came to work in Portugal at that time, so they contributed to the development of the country by giving birth to new styles while working under royal patrons. These include themes from Italian Renaissance art such as geometry and symmetry but with more expressive faces and figures.
Portugal was one of the last European countries to be affected by the Enlightenment movement, which began in France in the 17th century. So, its culture remained very Catholic and monarchical until the French Revolution in 1789.
However, since the 19th century, Portuguese historians have used the term "baroque" to describe all things Portuguese from the early days of the nation right up until today.
Other distinguishing characteristics of baroque architecture are grandeur, drama, and contrast (particularly in lighting), curvaceousness, and a bewildering assortment of rich surface treatments, twisting components, and gilded statues. Architects were unafraid to use brilliant colors and deceptive, brightly painted ceilings. The result is an exuberant, over-the-top style that often includes elaborate decoration and theatrical scenes.
The word "baroque" comes from a Portuguese term meaning "vast" or "grand". That's certainly appropriate for a church designed by the most famous architect of the era, Borromini. The Sant'Ivo della Sapienza church in Rome was built between 1645 and 1667 and it's regarded as one of Italy's first examples of baroque architecture. It's named after the Greek word for "ivory" because of its beautiful carved pulpit. The church sits on a corner site and has impressive views of the city from its elevated position. It's especially famous for its intricate marble decorations which include sculptures by various artists including Gian Lorenzo Bernini and his father Pietro. The latter also designed the church's main entrance which is made up of several pieces of sculpture arranged like the teeth of a crown.
Borromini was an extremely talented young architect who established himself early on during the papacy of Alexander VI.