Classical architecture is divided into five orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite, which were all called in later Roman periods. The first three were designed by Greek architects, who had a great effect on the final two, which were composites rather than true improvements. However, the Greeks did develop some new ideas that were adopted in Rome later.
Greek architecture was also very influential in Asia Minor and North Africa. In Egypt, many large temples were built, some of which are still standing today. These include the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, the Temple of Ramses II in Abu Simbel, and the Temple of Philae.
In Asia Minor, many cities have impressive ancient monuments, such as Ephesus, Priene, Pergamon, Selcuk, Thyatira, and Philadelphia (Turkey). Even today, many parts of Greece and Turkey remain untouched by modern development, allowing visitors to see ancient ruins in their natural state.
Finally, there are many famous buildings in Rome that reflect the wealth and culture of the Greeks. They include the Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens, the Theatre of Pompey in Rome, and the Maison Carrée in Alésia.
Greek architecture influenced many other cultures throughout Europe and the Middle East, but it was not truly original until much later when Roman architects began using Greek models.
Ancient Greek architecture grew into three separate orders during its early ascent in the Classical period: the Doric, the Ionic, and the Corinthian. Each of these orders was distinguished by distinctive elements in its columns, which were used in formal, public structures like as stadiums and theaters. The Doric order was most common in southern Greece while the Ionic style was popular in Athens. The Corinthian order was developed in Corinth but is also found in other parts of Greece and on islands like Delos.
During the Hellenistic period, the influence of Rome began to appear in Greek architecture. The Romans adopted many features from the Greeks, including their appreciation for the order of columns. But they also introduced some new ideas that would eventually alter how buildings were constructed. For example, they used concrete instead of stone to build their houses. Concrete has weight less than one-tenth that of solid rock so it's well suited for building large structures like apartment blocks or office towers.
The Romans also took advantage of technological advances made by the Greeks. They built arches instead of using wood for their bridges because metal beams were stronger. And since roads were usually made of dirt, the Romans invented the culvert, which is a underground pipe that carries water under a road or driveway.
Finally, the Greeks had already begun to divide up their buildings into rooms when the Romans came along.
The Greeks constructed the majority of their temples and administrative structures in three styles: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The sorts of columns they employed reflected these styles (also known as "orders"). In general, Doric columns have straight shafts with no base, Ionic have fluted shafts with a base, and Corinthian have carved capitals on both ends.
Here is a picture of each type of column:
Doric - No base, just plain vertical pillars
Ionic - Base under the pillar and round top
Corinthian - Carved capitals on both ends
There were also other types of columns used by the Greeks, such as half-columns, but these are rare.
Greeks also used columns in buildings other than temples. These include houses, schools, and shops. Sometimes they used Doric or Ionic columns in pairs to make a doorway or window frame.
Finally, some Greek cities had statues of themselves called "autoktones" (meaning "self-governors") which were placed in public spaces. These are the only remaining autoktersos in existence today. They were made out of bronze and usually stood about four feet high.