Modern architecture, also known as modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or style based on new and innovative construction technologies, particularly the use of glass, steel, and reinforced concrete; the idea that form should follow function (functionalism); an embrace of minimalism; and a synthesis of these. It began in Europe around 1900 and reached its zenith in the early decades of the 21st century.
It evolved from the late-19th-century revival style called Neoclassicism, which had large buildings with classical orders based on Roman and Greek models. The emphasis in Neoclassical design was on symmetry and balance, with well-proportioned parts for as long as possible back to front. The use of cast iron and glass in office buildings gave them a modern appearance while they were still adhering to the traditional formality of architecture.
The first true modern architects were László Hudecy and Ernő Goldfinger, who designed factories in Hungary and England, respectively. They are often called the fathers of modern architecture because they introduced many concepts now common in modern buildings such as exposed structural members, clear glass walls, and flat roofs. Other pioneers included Richard Neutra, Walter Gropius, and Antoni Gaudí. In the United States, Harvey Wiley Clark and George W. Maher are credited with founding the field.
Harvey Wiley Clark was an architect who invented several building types still used today.
Modernista Architecture refers to the 19th century art and literary movement in Catalan culture in Spain. Drawings, paintings, designs, decorative arts, and architecture were all used to express this trend. The main architect was Antoni Gaudí, who created a distinctive style that mixed Gothic and Renaissance elements with modern innovations.
Gaudí's work included buildings such as the Palau de la Música Catalana in Barcelona, which was completed in 1906; the La Sagrada Familia church in Barcelona, which is still under construction more than 100 years later; and the Park Güell in Barcelona, which was built for the World's Fair of 1893. His most famous work may be the Park Güell, but it is also possible that his contemporaries may choose his other projects for their glory. All of Gaudí's works display an extraordinary creativity and vision for design that have never been seen before or since.
Besides being an architect, Gaudí was also a painter, sculptor, and ceramist. His work focused on nature and medieval history and included illustrations for books by Dante and others. Gaudí died at age 46 after he was hit by a taxi while walking home from the office one dark winter's day in 1926.
Here's a bird's-eye view: The term "modern" often refers to a particular architectural type of residence developed between the early 1900s and the 1950s. It's a set style that never changes. It will always remain contemporary. Modern houses are clean lines, smooth surfaces, and easy-to-clean materials, such as glass, concrete, and stainless steel.
Modern homes are typically smaller than traditional houses and have fewer rooms. They usually have one floor above ground level and can be as little as 1,000 square feet or as large as 5,000 square feet. However, most are between 2,000 and 3,000 square feet.
Also called "shot-term" housing, modern homes were originally designed for young married couples with no children. Today, they are attractive options for empty nesters who want to downsize or move closer to family members in need of assisted living facilities.
Modern homes were innovative for their time because they used inexpensive but durable materials such as glass, metal, and concrete instead of more expensive wood. For example, modern homeowners would use stainless steel appliances instead of old-fashioned aluminum or wooden ones. They also included finished floors instead of parquet or carpeting. These are just some of many differences between modern and traditional homes.
Modern Chinese architecture encompasses anything created in China from the mid-nineteenth century and encompasses a wide range of architectural styles. Chinese architecture offers it all, from ancient components combined with modern techniques to cutting-edge modern architectural landmarks. The most famous example of early modern Chinese architecture is the Great Wall, but there are many more buildings in different parts of the world with Chinese characteristics.
In addition to traditional building types such as pagodas, temples, and mosques, modern Chinese architecture also includes factories, schools, houses, offices, and other structures built for various purposes.
The history of Chinese architecture dates back over 5,000 years. It has been suggested that some contemporary Chinese buildings may be older than several well-known historical sites in Europe. These include the Pyramid of Giza in Egypt (c. 2570 B.C.), the Temple of Artemis in Greece (c. 1400 B.C.), and the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus in Turkey (c. 500 B.C.). However, none of these claims can be verified because no official documentation exists about the earlier buildings.
During the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) large areas inside and outside Beijing were covered with new residential neighborhoods for the city's expanding population.
The contemporary home was often built with post-and-beam construction with a flat or wide low-pitched gable or shed roof. The exposed structure, expressive use of modern materials, and inclusion of landscaped spaces, sometimes inside the home, were the primary aspects contributing to the architectural character. The term "mansion" is commonly used to describe large houses; however, many small homes are also called "mansions".
The British architect Sir John Soane designed what is considered the first true museum in London during the Romantic era. Built as a house for himself, it contains several rooms that illustrate his projects and career as an architect. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston has a collection of art galleries and a library that are all free to visit by the public.
Museums that charge admission are common today but this was not always the case. Many of the early museums were charitable organizations that charged no fees to enter their facilities. Some still operate under this model including the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History and the New York Historical Society.
Modern mansions usually contain numerous bedrooms and bathrooms for guests, high ceilings, and extensive hardwood floors. They may have large kitchens with granite countertops, dining rooms, living rooms, libraries, solariums, and even swimming pools or spas.