Chartres Cathedral in Chartres, France, houses the Rose and Lancet windows. The Gothic-style windows were erected to the cathedral between 1230 and 1235. The stained glass windows at the church's north transept are constructed of glass that has been stained to produce a magnificent visual impression. The window on the left side of the nave shows Christ as Judge with symbols of the justice being administered by Him. The window on the right depicts the Crucifixion with angels bearing His body.
The window was created by Hugh de Payens who also designed the glass for Westminster Abbey. He chose to illustrate the stories of the New Testament instead of writing about them as most other artists of his time did. The scenes come from various sources including original drawings made for the window. They show great artistic skill and detail. The best known image is undoubtedly that of Christ as Judge which can be seen from outside the cathedral. It represents one of the most important events in Christian history: the Last Judgment. Created in 1260, this window is one of the last works by Hugh de Payens before he died.
The window was restored in 1842 because parts of it had begun to deteriorate. It was cleaned and some of the colored glass replaced.
The period in which the window was built is called "The High Middle Ages". This era began in Europe around 1150 and ended in 1350.
The rose window expanded throughout Europe early in its development. There are examples in Italy (S. Zeno Maggiore in Verona, the cathedral of Carrara), Spain (Burgos cathedral), England (Lincoln cathedral), and Germany and central Europe. It is possible that some of the windows at Trinity Church in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, may be by Guy de Monseréjouls.
The term "rose window" was first used by English writer John Ruskin in his book Modern Painters, where he described the window at Manchester Cathedral as being like a rose garden inside the church. He also wrote that it was "a thing more worthy to be called art".
Today, the term "rose window" is used to describe any large stained-glass window with an elaborate design featuring flowers or other plants. The word "window" here does not mean a small hole but rather a panel of glass inserted into a wall or building structure to provide light and airiness.
There are several theories about who designed the Burgos cathedral's rose window. Some say it was created by a Spanish artist named Crescencio Butrio while others claim it was done by another painter named Jaume Capdevila. However, there is evidence that both men were involved in its creation.
The huge circular stained glass windows seen in Gothic churches are known as rose windows. They were inspired by the oculus, a tiny, spherical window used in ancient Roman construction. The word "rose" in English may also be used to describe any small, circular window.
The term "rose window" first appeared in the 14th century when stained glass artists began to use it to describe one of several large windows they would have shipped with their merchandise. These windows would have been sold separately from the stained glass panels that made up the rest of the church window. The merchant who bought these windows would then install them in his building as decorative art.
By the 15th century, roses were becoming larger and more elaborate. They were now being used not only as decorative elements but as scenes from the Bible or other religious topics. These windows served as valuable sources of income for poor priests who didn't own land or money enough to afford expensive paintings on wood or canvas.
In the 16th century, under the influence of humanism and classical culture, roses started to look less like flowers and more like sculptures. Designers even began to embed iron rods inside the glass to allow them to bend and model the forms they wanted to portray.