Responsive architecture is a growing area of architectural practice and study. Responsive structures are ones that use sensors to assess actual environmental conditions, allowing buildings to adjust their form, shape, color, or character in real time (via actuators). The goal is to maximize energy efficiency while minimizing costs and carbon emissions.
In its most basic form, responsive design involves four elements: content, format, device, and context. Content describes what is included within the architecture, such as drawings, photographs, text, etc. Format determines how this content will be presented, such as using words or images. Device encompasses the physical characteristics of the medium through which content is delivered. For example, a smartphone screen is different from an LED television. Context refers to external factors that may affect the delivery of content, such as weather or user location. For example, a building might open up a window for fresh air when it senses that it is closed in too tightly due to high heat outside.
The term "responsive design" was first used by American architect Eric Siegel in his 2003 book titled Responsive Architecture. Since then, it has become one of many terms used to describe computer-controlled architecture. Although the concept of responsive design was not new at the time, Siegel was one of the first architects to develop methods for creating adaptive buildings.
Socially responsive architecture supports a community, resolves societal injustices, and adjusts to climatic, cultural, and environmental factors. Socially responsive design assisted architects in creating glass-and-steel bus shelters that provide visibility while shielding people from wind and rain. It also inspired the creation of energy-efficient houses designed to better accommodate Bangladesh's traditional housing styles.
Sustainable design strives to reduce the negative environmental effect of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, development space, and the ecosystem as a whole. Sustainable architecture also includes efforts toward regenerating the environment after the building has been removed.
The term "sustainable architecture" was first used by Peter (Peeter) Gropius in his book The Art of Building In the Modern World. He defined it as "the science and art of constructing functional and beautiful buildings." He further stated that "this new architecture must be based on understanding of modern needs and on the latest scientific knowledge".
In 1997, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2003 as the International Year of Shelter for its potential to improve living conditions for people around the world by making better uses of land and resources. The year long event was organized with the aim of raising public awareness about shelter and the impact that buildings have on their inhabitants' lives. Events were planned in over 100 countries with participants including architects, builders, city planners, and educators. A key message throughout the campaign was that adequate housing is a human right.
In conclusion, sustainable architecture aims to provide high quality built environments that do not compromise the health and well-being of current and future generations.
Page Layout that is Responsive. A responsive page layout employs both relative units and media queries, apparently integrating the concepts of a liquid and flexible layout. A responsive layout, like a liquid layout, will flex when the width of the browser rises or lowers. But it will also respond to any increase or decrease in text size, thus preserving the overall alignment of elements on the page.
Responsive design allows a web page to be viewed efficiently on any device with a screen, by adapting its structure and content to fit the viewing device. This is in contrast to using "fixed" dimensions, which are designed with specific margins and padding around an article to make them look good on a computer monitor or other flat screen device. When someone visits your site with a mobile phone or other small handheld device, they'll see a messy jumble of text and graphics instead of a comfortable reading experience.
In addition to making your website more accessible to users on different devices, a responsive design also improves user experience (UX) on computers by preventing unnecessary scrolling. If the screen is too narrow, the page will simply wrap onto another line - this may happen if you have very long paragraphs of text, for example. But as long as there's enough space, the entire page will be visible.
A responsive website can also reduce the amount of traffic generated by visitors to desktop versions of websites who view only part of the page.
A web design that responds to a user interface and readily communicates with users. "Responsiveness" refers to an application that reacts to user queries as much as feasible. In the mobile view, an application's responsiveness is employed. This means that the app displays content optimally on any device without the need for multiple versions of the same application.
For example, if an application does not respond to a small screen size by displaying content in a compact format, then it is not responsive. An example of an non-responsive application is one that does not scale down its layout so that it can be displayed on a phone or tablet screen. Such an application would look bad when viewed on a small device because there wouldn't be enough room to display all the content.
Mobile applications should be responsive because only through this approach can you provide users with a good experience on any device. Without responsiveness, you might get lucky and have some people using your application on old devices, but these are likely to be the exceptions rather than the rule. In fact, Google recently announced that it will no longer support browsers older than IE9 because most modern websites work perfectly well without supporting these older browsers.
The importance of being responsive cannot be overstated. There are now more people using smartphones and tablets than desktop computers, thus demonstrating the increasing demand for responsive apps.