Dome The dome is by far the finest form for earthquake resistance, according to the University of British Columbia. The dome surpassed conventionally-structured dwellings on the "shaking table," a test procedure designed to mimic the impact of earthquakes on various building types. The UBC report found that dome houses were 1,000 times more resistant to collapse than conventional buildings.
If you want to build like Leonardo da Vinci or Frank Lloyd Wright, then get yourself a dome house!
The Dome Shape is Virtually Earthquake-Proof, according to the Shake Table Test. In April 2005, researchers at the University of British Columbia's Department of Civil Engineering's Earthquake Engineering Research Facility tested the wood frame of a 24-foot-diameter dome on a shaking table. The dome performed extremely well, with only four of the 44 samples breaking. The team also tested other common house shapes and found that the dome had better performance than either the cube or cylinder when considering average lifetime probability of failure.
To qualify as "earthquake proof" under the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) guidelines, a house must be able to stand up to an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Richter scale. A dome can meet this requirement since it is more resistant to bending forces than other commonly used house shapes such as the cube and cylinder.
Domes have many advantages over other house shapes. They are efficient structures that use relatively little material per square foot of floor space. This means that you can build a house with fewer materials overall and therefore less risk of damage during an earthquake. Domes are also very stable: if built correctly, they tend to collapse inward rather than outward like trees do in windstorms. This is because all the force of wind pressure is concentrated on one point inside the dome, which cannot push it outwards since there is no internal support for its weight.
The ability to withstand and respond to earthquakes is dependent on building rules and emergency preparation. "The dome itself is quite sturdy," Moore remarked. "The dome structure is linked to concrete by cables that extend 40 feet below the foundation's depth." The weight of the dome causes the ground under it to sink, which in turn increases the strength of the dome/ground bond.
Domes have been used for thousands of years in many different cultures for various structures, including temples, churches, and museums. Modern buildings using this design include the Natural History Museum in London and Moscow's Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts.
The key to a dome's success as an earthquake-proof design is found in its flexibility. A dome can collapse inwardly toward its center without damaging itself or the building it surrounds. This is not possible with a traditional rectangular frame structure. If a dome did fail in a seismic event, the damage would be contained within the body of the building, reducing overall risk to people inside.
Other advantages of the dome design are its lightness and its protection from wind, rain, and snow. It is also easy to heat or cool a dome structure compared to other building types because of its capacity to collect and retain heat during the day while keeping rooms cool at night.
Engineers can evaluate how well a structure can withstand lateral force by placing a model of it on a "shaking table," which travels horizontally to simulate the forces caused by an earthquake. The structure is then re-evaluated for its ability to remain standing.
How did scientists know that Venus has a dense atmosphere? They used a gas gauge! Galileo dropped rocks into Venus's cloud cover and found that they fell rapidly, which means that there is a strong wind at Venus's surface.
Venus's clouds are made of sulfuric acid. If you fell into its dense atmosphere, your spacecraft would be destroyed before it could transmit a signal back to Earth.
Galileo used this knowledge to help save the life of another human being: John Bennett. In 1610, Bennett was exploring Europe with a group of Englishmen when his ship was wrecked on its way home from a trading trip. All but one of the men survived the wreck, but none of them knew how to navigate using stars at night. So their next stop was Venice, where Galileo could help them.
Galileo owned two telescopes at the time, one in Rome and one in Venice. He used these to study Jupiter and its moons. Then he showed the men how to use the stars to guide them home.