The Periclean Parthenon of Athens is perhaps the most complete and well-known example of ancient Greek temple architecture—a Doric order building, the Parthenon reflects the maturity of the Greek classical form. The original structure was built 438 - 432 B.C. by Phidias, one of the early masters of sculpture in Greece. It was burned down in a riot in 1823 and not rebuilt until 1768, when the architect Xenocles joined together parts of the Erechtheion with the old site to create a new Parthenon for which he is now also regarded as the creator.
In its day, the Parthenon was considered to be one of the finest buildings in Europe. The central pediment was painted by the Elgin Marbles Committee in 1816 - 1820. These are now in the British Museum in London. In 1678, the Athenian statesman Pericles paid for the construction of a new acropolis at Athens, intending it to be a place of worship for Athena. The new site was much less defensible than the old one, so the Parthenon was not needed for defense purposes. However, the location was close to the city center, and thus suitable as a ceremonial site for the goddess.
Pericles directed the construction of numerous prominent temples on the Acropolis in ancient Athens. Among these was the Parthenon, often regarded as the best example of Greek architecture. The Erechtheion is another famous temple on the Acropolis.
The artistic and architectural center of ancient Greece was not limited to Athens; there were many other cities with important sanctuaries to which people traveled from all over the Mediterranean world. Corinth, Ionia, Sparta, and Elis are just a few of the cities that emerged as powerful kingdoms during the sixth century B.C. They all had significant roles to play in the growth of Athenian democracy. However, only Athens maintained its position as the leading city state through most of antiquity. The others were eventually overshadowed by Rome.
Artists and architects came from all over Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean to work on these projects. Many famous names are associated with classical Greece — Myron, Phidias, Parmigianino, Raphael, and Michelangelo are just a few — but they all learned their trades in other countries before coming to Athens or Sparta. Indeed, although ancient Greeks were the first to use marble for sculpting and bronze for making statues, they also used wood, stone, and even clay when making art.
The Acropolis of Athens The Parthenon, Acropolis of Athens (447–432 BCE). The great Doric temple on Athens' Acropolis and the classic masterpiece of Greek High Classical architecture, it is still one of the world's most important and famous structures. The Parthenon was originally built to house the Athenian Panathenaic Festival, which was held every year in April to commemorate the goddess Athena who had been born from Zeus' head. However, only the neoclassical modifications made in the 18th century are actually part of the original structure.
Other notable examples include the Temple of Hephaestus at Pompeii, the Maison Carrée of Nîmes, the Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens, and the Theatre of Dionysus in Corinth.
The word "parthenon" is derived from the Greek phrase aptero neaniskos, meaning "young woman from Nea Nikomidou", the neighborhood where it was first built. It was later renamed after the ancient Athenians who fought beside their king in the Battle of Marathon. Today, visitors can see photographs and drawings of how the original building looked like before the British burned it during the Greek War of Independence.
The current version of the temple is a reconstruction based on descriptions by Pausanias in the 2nd century CE.
The Doric order Classical architecture: Ancient Greek architecture Architectural styles include Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. Doric was the most popular style during its evolution from about 530 B.C. to 450 B.C., while Ionic developed later and is found in many places in Greece and Rome. The Temple of Zeus at Olympia is an excellent example of Doric architecture.
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Olympia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Parthenon The Parthenon is a temple that stands atop the Acropolis hill in Athens. It was dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena Parthenos and constructed in the mid-5th century BC ("Athena the Virgin"). The word "parthenon" means "virgin's house".
The Parthenon is regarded as one of the most important monuments of Ancient Greece. It was built over an older structure by Phidias and his team of sculptors. The original cult object used to dedicate the temple not known; it may have been a statue made by Pheidias himself. The exact date of its construction is unknown but it probably lasted from 447 to 430 BC.
It is said that the king of Athens, Pericles, wanted to build a larger temple to house the gold and silver treasures that were found during excavations on the Acropolis but didn't have time to finish it. So he ordered the construction of this smaller temple instead. The architect was Callicratidas who also designed the Red House on Aegaleo Island for King Agis III. The main material used to build the temple was marble brought from Paestum in Italy. There are references to it having been built with funds donated by individuals but there is no evidence of such donations having been made. It is more likely that the money came from the state treasury.
The Parthenon is a temple that stands atop the Acropolis hill in Athens. The building is best known for its magnificent carved marble frieze and its gold and ivory interior. Its construction was started by Phidias but he died before it was completed. The project then fell to his son, Apelles, who only lived long enough to see part of it finished. The rest of the work was done by his nephew, Ictinos.
The temple was burned down during the Peloponnesian War but was rebuilt within eight years. In 387 BC, after another fire had destroyed most of the original structure, the current version was begun by Mestrius Agathocles. It was finally completed in about 432 AD by Athenian architects Hicetas and Myron. The total cost of the building to that time was around $15 million (4,085,000 drachmas).
The temple was very important for Athens because it was here that prizes were given out at city games and competitions. It also served as the seat of the City Council when they met on the Acropolis. And lastly, it was here that public executions took place.
The Parthenon is a magnificent marble temple erected during the height of the Greek Empire between 447 and 432 B.C. The Parthenon, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, stands high atop the Acropolis of Athens, a complex of temples. The building is in two stories with an open air courtyard on the ground floor and a cella or inner room for sacred objects on the upper story.
Athenians constructed their most important public buildings to honor their gods. The city's governors were called "archons" (meaning "leader" or "guide") until 287 B.C., when they were renamed "kings."
The word "parthenon" comes from the Greek phrase "parthenos kyriou," which means "virgin guardian." It refers to the cult image of Athena that was housed in the temple. The gold statue that survives today was made around 450 B.C. by the French sculptor Praxiteles. It shows the goddess wearing a peplum (a kind of skirt) that has flames coming out of it, indicating that she is protecting her temple from fire. She holds her spear in her right hand and a shield in her left hand.
Athenians saw themselves as descendants of the ancient Athenians, who had lived on the site over 5,000 years earlier.