A pavement's principal role is to transfer loads to the sub-base and underlying soil. Modern flexible pavements are composed of sand and gravel or crushed stone compacted with a bituminous binder such as asphalt, tar, or asphaltic oil. This type of pavement is flexible enough to absorb impact. It provides good traction for vehicles while allowing water to drain through its open cells. The binder makes it durable and long lasting.
Flexible pavements are used instead of concrete because they are less expensive, they require less time to install, and they can be moved if needed. However, these advantages come at a cost: they cannot withstand freezing temperatures and lack structural integrity so they must be resurfaced every few years. Also, they look plain compared to concrete, which can be colored or shaped according to design requirements.
This type of pavement is most commonly found in parking lots, roadways, and airport runways where its flexibility is important for vehicle travel and drainage control, respectively.
It should be noted that some jurisdictions may not allow the use of this type of pavement due to liability concerns. In addition, certain vehicles such as dump trucks have been known to cause damage when driving over it because it lacks sufficient resistance to their weight.
The main advantage of using this type of pavement instead of conventional concrete is the cost savings.
Paving stone (architecture) Pavement is a type of outdoor floor or superficial surface covering used in building. Asphalt, concrete, stones such as flagstone, cobblestone, and setts, artificial stone, bricks, tiles, and sometimes wood are all used in the construction of pavements. Pavements are a type of hardscape in landscape architecture...
The word pavement comes from Latin pavimentum, meaning "a covering or layer," and French pavière, "a paving material." In architecture, the term refers to the upper surface of a room or other public space that has been covered with stone, brick, or similar materials. The pavement may be made of one piece of material laid down over the entire area or it may consist of several pieces of smaller material fitted together. As well as being decorative, the purpose of the pavement is to provide traction on its surface for those walking on shoes or boots, and to prevent water from flowing into buildings through cracks or holes in the surface.
There are three main types of pavement: flagstone, ceramic tile, and polymer clay tile. Each type has different properties which make them suitable for various applications. Flagstone is a granular rock composed of rounded pebbles bonded together by a cementing agent such as sand or clay. It is easy to clean and durable; however, it can be expensive. Ceramic tile is manufactured in a variety of colors and styles, and it is easy to maintain. It is also durable, but can be more expensive than flagstone.
A pavement is a man-made surface on natural ground that people, cars, or animals may use to cross. A pavement is any ground surface that has been prepared for transportation. Pavements can be made of rock or other material, such as asphalt or concrete. The word "pavement" comes from the Latin pavimentum, meaning "a covering." In modern usage the term refers to any flooring consisting of a hard surface used for walking on.
In civil engineering, a pavement is any hardened surface used as a base for road construction. Paving involves the laying out and grading of graded gravel or stone, which has been screened to remove large rocks, over which hot tar or molten asphalt has been spread to form an even surface. As this material cools it becomes hard, durable, and attractive. Modern pavements are usually made of compacted crushed rock or sand with some kind of binder added to make the material stick together. Older roads may have had cobblestones or flagstones laid out over a rough subgrade, but these are now considered obsolete for new projects.
The process of paving includes three main steps: site preparation, pavement design, and construction. Site preparation involves removing vegetation, topsoil, and any other materials that might interfere with the placement of the pavement.
Seal coat, surface course, tack coat, binder course, prime coat, base course, sub-base course, compacted sub-grade, and natural sub-grade are typical layers of a standard flexible pavement (Figure 2). The seal coat is applied to provide protection from water, chemicals, and traffic while allowing air to flow through the coating and into the subsurface. The top layer of the road must be flat and smooth in order to reflect light away from oncoming vehicles and allow drivers to see any hazards. This first layer is usually made of asphalt or concrete.
The next level is the roughness course which varies in depth from as little as 1/8 inch up to 3/4 inch or more. It provides traction for vehicles by giving them something to grab when driving over potholes and other rough surfaces. This course is made of stone, rubber, cork, wood, or some other material that will not damage the underneath layer of the road if it gets scratched up during installation or use.
Next comes the tack coat which is used to secure all the other layers together and prevent them from coming apart during heavy truck use. It is also used to provide some cushioning between vehicles traveling over the road. Finally, there's the prime coat which is designed to protect the interior of your car or truck from road debris such as rocks, glass, and dust before it reaches the base course.