The Roman Empire's classic architectural style was distinguished by the employment of orders, pediments, arches, domes, and vaults. The art of building with these elements was developed during the Roman Republic (509 B.C.-31 B.C.) and perfected under the Empire. Rome was first illuminated by Vitruvius, a Roman architect who lived around 15 B.C.
Classic Roman architecture can be described as an adaptation of Greek styles to the requirements of Roman building practices. The Romans borrowed many features from their ancient Mediterranean neighbors, but they also contributed some new ideas of their own. For example, they adopted the Doric order from Greece for use in public buildings such as temples and law courts, but they also invented the Ionic order as well as other less popular variations.
Roman architects were particularly skilled at using concrete as a structural material. Concrete has the advantage of being easy to work with and capable of bearing large loads. It does not rot or decay like wood, and when used in construction today it still retains its strength and durability after more than 2000 years.
Concrete consists of small pieces of stone or brick mixed with water and cement, which hardens into a solid substance.
There was a resurgence of classic Roman forms such as the column and round arch, tunnel vault, and dome. The sequence was the most important design feature. For example, the first structure built over an iron frame was a viaduct. It connected two bridges over the River Wear in Sunderland, England, where I live.
The viaduct was opened in 1765 by King George III. It was designed by Thomas Harrison, who also did the nearby Royal Dockyard Bridge. The viaduct is made of wood with iron bands to hold it together. Inside the channels that carry the traffic are filled with gravel so that the iron does not rust.
Harrison's son improved on this idea by adding more bridges over time, until they had a series of viaducts connecting the two sides of the river. This must have been quite a sight!
Another classic form is the gate. In ancient Rome, there were three types of gates: wooden, brick, and stone. But mostly they were made of wood with metal bars attached to their posts.
Gates served several purposes. They protected people from dangerous animals or thieves. They also separated different areas of the city or country. There were public baths where everyone could go and get clean before entering the holy temple.
The architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, is known as Byzantine architecture. Its architecture had a significant impact on later medieval architecture across Europe and the Near East, and it was the principal parent of the Renaissance and Ottoman architectural traditions that emerged after its demise.
Byzantium was an important commercial city in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. It became the capital of the Byzantine Empire in 330 CE, when Emperor Constantine moved his court there from Rome. The city was eventually conquered by Muslim armies in 1453, but its influence was so great that it can be said that the Renaissance began in Byzantium.
Byzantium was unique among ancient cities for several reasons: it was heavily fortified, it used a mixed economy including slavery, and it educated many philosophers and scientists. These factors combined to produce a culture with a strong identity of its own, which influenced both arts and science throughout Europe after its fall.
In English, "byzantine" comes from the Greek word býzanos, meaning "mystical" or "idolatrous". This adjective is applied to art or architecture that is believed to have been influenced by Christian Orthodoxy but is not considered heretical like Manichaeism or Nestorianism. Rather, it is seen as falling short of the ideal within Christianity; it is thus "imperfect".
Structures of Victory The triumphal arch, a free-standing archway designed to celebrate a significant event, is one of the most enduringly popular styles of Roman architecture (often a military campaign). A triumphal arch may include sculpture related to the occasion, such as narrative reliefs or crowning sculptures. It often serves as the main entrance to a forum, a large open space where public business was conducted by elected magistrates. For example, the Arch of Titus in Rome is largely composed of sculptured images taken from buildings in Jewish Jerusalem after it had been destroyed in 70 AD during the Roman conquest of that country. The arch marks the end point of a long road called Via Triumphalis, which led back to the capital city.
There are several varieties of triumphal arches, but they all share some similar features: they are usually made of stone; they often have three openings, with the middle one being the largest; and they often have a span of about 12 meters (39 feet). There are also wooden versions of this type of arch, but they are rare.
The word "triumph" comes from the Latin term trumpere, meaning "to wave the flag." This refers to the custom of participants in a victorious parade to raise their arms in the air, forming an arch. Today, we use the word "triumphant" to describe someone who has achieved success.
The Pantheon and the Colosseum were two of Rome's most prominent structures built during the Pax Romana. The Pantheon, Rome's most renowned domed edifice, is a beautiful temple dedicated to all of Rome's gods. The Colosseum was made of concrete and covered with stone. It was used for entertaining crowds with games such as gladiatorial contests and animal fights.
The Pantheon was originally built in 27 B.C. as a temple to all of Rome's gods. Over time it was converted into a church before being reclaimed by the city as a public building. Today it functions as both a museum and a synagogue. The original structure was inspired by Greece and Rome's understanding of the world at that time: there were many people who believed that only a small number of gods existed. So, the architects decided to create a large space where everyone could pray without any prejudices.
The Colosseum was built about A.D. 80 on top of an old stadium where animals used to be sacrificed to serve as entertainment for the spectators. This new arena could hold 50,000 people and still has the same capacity today. The games that were held here include bullfights, horse races, and even modern-day sports events like soccer matches and tennis tournaments. In fact, it is estimated that around 5 million people have attended games in the arena over the years!
Romanesque architecture combines elements of Roman and Byzantine architecture as well as other local traditions. It has monumental quality, thick walls, round arches, robust piers, groin vaults, big towers, and symmetrical layouts. The period's art was distinguished by a strong style in both painting and sculpture. Late Romanesque musicians played an important role in establishing new styles of violin and cello.
Byzantium or Eastern Roman Empire was the name given to the state that succeeded the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476. It included most of Europe and North Africa, with only small territories belonging to others such as the Persians. The empire was ruled from Constantinople by an emperor who claimed descent from Augustus Caesar. The capital was originally Rome but was later moved to Constantinople because it was protected by major sea lanes which made it difficult for attackers from the west to reach it. In 1071, the last Byzantine emperor died without an heir so the nation fell to the Turks.
The two cultures were very different. Byzantium was a city-state while the west was ruled by emperors. However, they did have some things in common. They both used the Latin language as well as many other European languages for communication. Also, both had a complex system of law that governed their societies. Finally, both were influenced by Christianity but in different ways.