A highway pavement is a structure made up of stacked layers of processed materials over the natural soil sub-grade, the principal function of which is to disperse applied vehicle loads to the sub-grade. The three main types of pavement are concrete, asphalt, and macadam.
Concrete has become the most widely used type of pavement because it is able to carry traffic loads efficiently while providing good resistance to fatigue damage, chemical attack, and heat. Concrete pavement is made by mixing water, gravel, sand, and cement (a hydraulic cement used as a binder in concrete) with various additives to improve its workability, durability, or color, and then spreading this mixture over an underlying base course or sub-base. The base course is a thin layer of compacted graded stone or crushed rock that provides a flat surface for the next layer of concrete to be placed on. It can be either smooth or textured to help reduce noise and vibration transmitted from the road surface to buildings near the road.
Asphalt pavement is a composite material consisting of coarse and fine aggregates, filler, and asphalt cement. Asphalt mixes are placed on the prepared base course and heated until they are malleable. They are then rolled out to the proper thickness and cured in place through oxidation of the asphalt binder.
A pavement is a man-made surface on natural ground that people, cars, or animals may use to cross. A pavement is any ground surface that has been prepared for transportation. Paving includes streets, highways, walkways, and parking lots. The word "pavement" comes from the Latin pavimentum, meaning "a laying out," "a covering," or "a base."
In North America, three types of pavements are commonly found: asphalt, concrete, and cobblestone. Asphalt pavement is by far the most common type of pavement found in urban areas. It is flexible and can handle heavy traffic loads. Asphalt pavement is made of loose rocks and sand mixed with tar. The mixture is spread over the ground and heated until it hardens.
Concrete pavement is the second most common type of pavement in North America. It is strong, durable, and can withstand heavy traffic loads. Concrete pavement is made of small stones or gravel mixed with a cement binder and sand. This mixture is placed in a mold and allowed to set into shape.
Cobblestones are large flat rocks without mortar used as a road surface. They were originally laid as part of a driveway in colonial times but are now used instead.
This article is about the material used for road surface paving. See Pavement for further information on various uses of the term "pavement" (disambiguation). A road surface, often known as a pavement, is a durable surface material that is placed down on an area meant to support automotive or pedestrian activity, such as a road or sidewalk. The word pavement comes from the Latin pavimentum, which means "a covering." In modern usage, the word refers to any surface constructed from asphalt or concrete. However, in early use, it also referred to a flooring material made of wood or other substances.
Paving is the process of laying down a solid surface material. The two main types of pavements are asphalt and concrete. Asphalt pavements are laid down over an elastic base material, such as crushed rock or gravel. They can be colored using various methods such as spray painting or troweling. Asphalt is easy to maintain and durable. It can also be heated to avoid ice accumulation during the winter months. Concrete pavements are poured into forms and allowed to harden before being removed. Like asphalt, they can be painted or stained to create different colors. Concrete is stronger than asphalt and can bear more weight per square foot. It is also less likely to crack when exposed to heat or cold weather conditions.
The type of pavement used for a given application will depend on factors such as budget, durability required, traffic volume, and climate.
The durable surface material placed down on an area meant to withstand automobile or foot traffic, such as a road or sidewalk, is referred to as a road surface (British English) or pavement (American English). Pavement can be made of concrete, asphalt, brick, stone, or any other material that will not decay over time. The term "paving" can also refer to the process of placing a surface layer on top of existing sub-base materials such as dirt or gravel.
Paved roads were originally constructed from rough-cut stones set in mud or dirt and held together with straw or wood. As cities grew and roads became more important, tar and cement were developed to cover large areas of ground. These modern materials are much better for health and the environment than their predecessors. However, they are still limited by weather conditions and cannot be used for all types of surfaces. Concrete is by far the most common type of pavement used today. It is economical to make and very durable if done properly. Asphalt is a hot mix of sand, gravel, and petroleum products that covers wide streets at a good price. It is dark colored and wears well under vehicle traffic. Brick and stone pavements are becoming popular again because of their unique look and ability to retain heat during cold months or when it rains. They can also act as a sound barrier between houses if laid out correctly.
The action of keeping a road or highway in excellent shape is referred to as road pavement maintenance. Monitoring pavement health, addressing and repairing delamination, cracking, and potholes, and maintaining correct pavement lane markings and striping are all part of the job. The type and frequency of maintenance tasks needed for different types of roads vary depending on traffic volume and other factors such as weather conditions. Maintaining roads is important for safety reasons as well as comfort for drivers.
Maintenance includes cleaning debris from streets and sidewalks, removing pot holes and other hazards, cutting back overgrown trees and shrubs, and sealing cracks in parking lots and at entrances to buildings. Regular maintenance helps prevent problems with your road surface that may lead to delays or have other adverse effects on traffic flow. Some items that should not be thrown onto streets include nails, screws, metal fasteners, and glass. These items can cause serious injuries if not handled properly. Asphalt plants mix asphalt batch materials (aggregates, modifiers, oils) with hot water and steam to create hot mixtures that are conveyed into trucks for delivery to projects. Asphalt plants also use heat to soften old asphalt so that it can be removed from roads.
Asphalt plants work with teams of specialists to ensure that roads remain safe for travel even after years of use. An asphalt plant supervisor oversees the operation of the plant and ensures that it is producing quality product.