The "crown" is the top of a dome. The inner side of a dome is referred to as the "intrados," while the outside side is referred to as the "extrados."
Domes are usually composed of two shells that are tied together at the base and have flat surfaces where they meet. The shape of the dome can be described as a cylinder with a cap. The part of the dome that is inside the building is called the "interior" while the part that is outside the building is called the "exterior."
There are several types of domes, including:
Berliner Dom (Berlin Cathedral) - Berlin
Blue Mosque (Istanbul) - Istanbul
Borobudur (Indonesia) - Yogyakarta
Great Mosque of Djenné (Mali) - Djenné
Hindu Temple (India) - Mumbai
Lotte World (South Korea) - Seoul
Metropolitan Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels (Los Angeles) - Los Angeles
Sistine Chapel (Rome) - Rome
The onion dome The dome is also known as an onion dome or amrud because of its form (guava dome). The top is embellished with a lotus motif that also serves to emphasize its height. The dome's design is highlighted by four smaller domed chattris (kiosks) situated at its four corners, which mirror the onion shape of the main dome.
The Taj Mahal was originally built as a tomb for Emperor Moghul's beloved wife, who would have been buried next to him in London. However, after over twenty years of waiting for her body to decay, they decided to build a larger tomb for both of them in India. The construction site was chosen by Shah Jahan because it was where his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal, was from and where they had good memories of their own wedding ceremony.
Mumtaz Mahal was a beautiful young woman who had many other men interested in marrying her. In order to persuade Shah Jahan that he was the only one for her, she went on a trip around India with her father. During this time, he proposed to her twice, but she refused him because she loved another man. After she returned home, she gave her father permission to marry her off if he could find a husband who was richer than she was. Her father found such a person in Shah Jahan, who ended up winning her heart. They were married in 1628 when Mumtaz Mahal was nineteen years old.
There are two types of domes with pendentives: simple and complex. The pendentives are part of the same sphere as the dome in the case of the basic dome. Such domes, however, are uncommon. Most domes have separate pendentives which form a second layer above the first.
Domes with shared pendentives are more common. In this case, the pendentive is actually a portion of the shell of the building that projects out like a balcony. The dome itself may be flat or slightly curved. It provides an open area for viewing the sky or for holding statues or other artwork. Domes with shared pendentives are found all over ancient Egypt at sites such as Giza, Dahshur, and Saqqara. They were used for many different purposes including temples, royal tombs, and theaters.
In modern times, shared-pendentive domes are commonly found in mosques. Like the ancient Egyptian examples, they provide open areas for viewing the sky or for holding statues or other artwork. However, in the Muslim world, these domes are usually called "towers" rather than "domes".
Finally, there are semi-domes which share some features with both simple and complex domes. A semi-dome has a lower center section that is circular but not perfectly so.