A post-and-lintel or trabeated system in architecture refers to the use of horizontal beams or lintels supported by columns or posts. The name is derived from the Latin trabs, which means beam, and was inspired by Trabeatus, who was dressed in the trabea, a ritual robe. This type of construction is used in many parts of the world where timber is available.
In Europe, trabeation is most common in Baltic countries and Russia. In North America, it is used for buildings in areas where lumber is plentiful but expensive. In South America, it is used for cheap housing.
The oldest known wooden building in Sweden, dating back to 730 AD, is also one of the largest trabeatered structures on record. It was built for the Christians as a church and later used as a military barracks. The structure was renovated in 2004 - 2005 and is now open to the public as a museum.
This form of construction is useful when working with materials that are easy to get but difficult to shape, such as wood. The pieces needed to build a house can be cut out independently and then assembled later. Trabeation allows architects to create complex shapes without having to use concrete or other materials that are hard to modify after they have been placed.
People often think that because a house is made up of many different types of material, it must be constructed using more than one method.
"Trabeate was a type of architecture in which roofs, doors, and windows were created by spanning a horizontal beam between two vertical columns." The trabeate style was utilized in the construction of temples, mosques, tombs, and structures linked to massive stepped-wells between the seventh and twelfth centuries. The Persian word trab means "cross" or "bridge". Thus, trabeate design involves cross-beams used for supporting roofs, portals, and other structures.
The term is derived from Latin trabes meaning "beam", which in turn comes from Greek trapein, meaning "to carry". Thus, trabeate architecture involves beams that span from column to column.
Beam architecture is any structure built with one or more beams. It includes buildings such as churches and mosques with structural beams running across their floors and ceilings. Also included are bridges, railroads, and highway overpasses where girders or trusses support the load above traffic lanes.
In architecture, a trabeate window is a window that opens both up into the trabeate space above and down into the trabeate space below. They usually have flat, panel-like shapes made of wood or metal. In some cases, they may be rectangular with curved corners instead.
A trabeate door is one that opens up into the trabeate space above and also down into the trabeate space below.
The post-and-lintel system is a straightforward building method that employs both vertical and horizontal parts. The verticals support the horizontals, resulting in a one-story building. To form structures with more than one level, more verticals can be added atop the horizontals. The system is often used for small buildings.
There are two types of post-and-lintel systems: open and closed. In an open system, the lintels (the horizontal beams) are exposed on all sides. In a closed system, the lintels are covered by posts or walls. The type of system used depends on how the building will be used. If it will be open most of the time, then open posts and lintels are best because people can see what's going on inside the house and there aren't as many hidden dangers when you're up on a ladder! But if the building is not going to be used much besides as a shelter from the rain, then a closed system would work just as well and be less expensive.
In a post-and-lintel system, the weight of the structure is supported primarily by the posts, which connect to the floor joists (or other forms of structural support). The lintels serve as horizontal members across which the posts are tied off; they are usually made of wood but also come in steel or aluminum versions.
Roofs, doors, and windows are created using the trabeate concept of construction by laying a horizontal beam over two vertical columns. The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows, on the other hand, is supported by arches in the arcuate principle of architecture.... The trabeate principle is also used in frame buildings and houses with rough-sawn timber framing.
In architecture, the trabeate (from Latin for "beam and column") is the simplest structural form used in building construction. It consists of a horizontal beam laid across two supporting columns or walls. The beam may be made of wood or steel. The term trabeate is often applied to larger structures such as bridges, but this term can also be applied to smaller elements such as doorways and window frames. In Europe, the trabeate structure is known as a joist system.
The trabeate structure is most effective when each member spans a single joint, so that only two connections to the underlying structure are required - one at either end. This is in contrast to the arcuate structure which requires four connections: two to the ends of each column/wall and two more through the middle of the arch. The trabeate structure is therefore more resistant to lateral forces, such as those caused by earthquakes.
Aches and beams are used in arcuate architecture. The weight of the superstructure (the section of the building above the ground level) is supported by arches in this style. Conclusion: In trabeate, the horizontal structure's weight is borne by two vertical columns, resulting in a considerable gap between the vertical columns.... In arched architecture, there is no gap between the columns because their weight is shared by an arch.