These three types-beam, arch, and suspension-have been recognized and erected since ancient times and are the roots of numerous combinations such as the truss, cantilever, cable-stayed, tied-arch, and movable spans. Many places of India have twisting vine and creeper bridges. Some of these bridges are very old; some are new.
Beam bridges are the most common type of bridge in India. They usually consist of two parallel beams which are connected by a number of pillars or posts. The beams may be made of wood or metal, but they often use concrete for their construction. The weight of the traffic is transferred to the ground via a foundation wall or footpath. This kind of bridge can only be built where there is space enough for its erection. In many cities of India, especially in Uttar Pradesh, you will find this type of bridge.
Arches are used where there is no room for a beam bridge because they require less space than beams. An arch has two curved arms that support the road above it. There should be at least one pillar on each side of the arch to keep it upright. Sometimes more than two pillars are used to make sure that the arch remains stable.
Suspension bridges are similar to arches in that they need little room to build but they do not have any straight lines: instead, they follow the curvature of the land.
Suspension bridges, one of the earliest engineering structures, were built by ancient peoples utilizing vines for cables and hanging the road or walkway directly on the wires. As cities grew and roads needed to be constructed, more durable materials were required for the job. Today's suspension bridges are based on design concepts developed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 15th century.
The first modern suspension bridge was built over the Menai Strait between England and Wales. It used camel hair with rods as cables to support a road deck. This bridge was built around 1816 and is still in use today. In 1838, Thomas Hinkley designed and built the first steel suspension bridge over the Ohio River near Cincinnati. This bridge was also used as a walkway so people could enjoy the view of the river without having to ride in a vehicle!
In the late 1800s, engineers began designing bridges that were better able to withstand great forces when weight is placed on them. These strong enough to carry heavy vehicles and rail lines. The Golden Gate Bridge in California was built in 1937 and remains one of the world's most famous suspension bridges. It connects San Francisco to Marin County by crossing the Golden Gate Strait. Another famous bridge is the St. Louis Arch Bridge which joins Missouri to Illinois across the Mississippi River.
Beam bridges are the oldest forms of bridges. These are bridges made up of horizontal beams. These beams are often built of heavy materials like metal or large slabs of wood. The ends of the beams are supported on vertical posts or walls at each side of the river or stream. Gaps are left between each beam and post or wall so that water can flow under the bridge.
Bridges have been used for movement across rivers, streams, and other bodies of water for many centuries. They are useful for crossing obstacles in a path not accessible by foot or vehicle. Before bridges were invented, people used animals, logs, and ramps to cross over streams and rivers. With the advent of roads, vehicles have become the most common means of transportation and thus need for bridges has increased dramatically.
The first known beam bridge was built in 27 BC by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus in Rome. It was used to cross the River Rubicon after which Julius Caesar declared himself dictator of Rome.
The first known stone bridge was built around AD 100. It crossed the River Dee in Scotland.
The first known iron bridge was built in 1766. It crosses the Elbe River in Germany.
The first cable-stayed bridge was built in 1872.
Suspension bridges were initially composed of rope and wood in their most basic form. A box section highway is supported by high tensile strength cables in modern suspension bridges. Suspension bridges employed iron chains for cables in the early nineteenth century. Suspension bridges are the most costly to construct. The first steel cable bridge was built in 1867 by Charles Ellett and John Fowler. Since then, many other types of cable-stayed and decked bridges have been developed.
The first metal bridge over a river or canal was probably a wooden trestle built around 1720 in Lancaster, England. In 1764, a permanent iron bridge was built over the River Dee near Newcastle. It was the first major iron structure in Britain and it remains in use today. During the 19th century, the development of the steam engine led to the creation of many new types of bridge. In 1817, the world's first vehicular traffic bridge was built across the Ohio River between Kentucky and Indiana. It was a flat-bottom pontoon bridge that could be rolled up on boats waiting below to cross back to Kentucky.
In 1831, Samuel Buell Delany designed and built the first steel bridge over the Potomac River between Washington, D.C. and Baltimore. This bridge used wrought iron for its main elements with some concrete piers added later to stabilize the bridge against tidal flooding.
The four bridge types listed above have been adapted to generate various different types of bridges constructed to execute specific operations. This prompted the development of the aqueduct, viaduct, bascule bridge, swing bridge, tilt bridge, truss bridge, and transporter bridge.
The first type of bridge to be built was the causeway. It consisted of a wooden platform for vehicles to cross over waterlogged ground. These were usually built where it was not possible to build a proper road bridge. The first causeway in Europe was built in Rome around 300 B.C. Since then, they have been used all over the world for connecting islands with land. There are three kinds of causeways: temporary, semi-permanent, and permanent.
A second type of bridge is the arch bridge. It consists of two arches that support a deck or road surface between them. The first arch bridge was built in Greece around 315 B.C. It was called an "antipylos" which means "against the gate". The name comes from how the arch covered a gateway or entrance way into a city/town. Today, we can see arch bridges all over the world from London to Bangkok to Manila.
A third type of bridge is the suspension bridge.