The three most popular materials are stone, concrete, and metal, however wood can also be utilized. Arch bridges are classified into two types: deck arches, which have the arch below the highway, and through arches, which have the arch rising over the roadway for at least part of the span. The type of bridge that carries an interstate or major freeway is usually a through arch bridge.
Interstate 80 in the United States has several deck arch bridges. The largest of these is the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, which carries six lanes of traffic across the bay from Oakland to Yerba Buena Island. It was completed in 1966 at a cost of $42 million (USD).
The longest suspension bridge in North America is the Golden Gate Bridge, which connects Sausalito, California, with Marin County. It has been called "the world's greatest view" because it offers one of the best views in the world from a suspension bridge. The main span is 3,716 feet long and consists of 29 towers each weighing about 930 tons. The total length of the bridge is just over 1 mile with its center line 20 feet above sea level. The bridge opened to traffic on May 27, 1937.
The George Washington Bridge crosses the Hudson River between New York City and New Jersey. It is the most heavily trafficked vehicular crossing between the two states and among the busiest in the nation.
However, the classification in this part centers on the building materials, deck placements, and structural systems. Arch bridges have been constructed since antiquity due to the ease of access to stone masonry, which is an excellent material for bearing compressive stresses. Also, its durability makes it attractive for applications where weight restrictions or remote locations limit other types of construction.
There are two main types of arch bridges: suspension and through. In a suspension arch bridge, the load-bearing elements are anchored to the ground on one side only (the "suspension side"). The opposite end is tied into a rigid structure such as a wall or tower. As force is applied to the suspension side, the arch deflects and transfers that force to the rigid structure via the load-bearing elements. A gusset plate attached to the top of the arch ties it back into position when the force is removed. Because there is no physical contact between the arched portion of the bridge and the ground or water beneath it, suspension arch bridges can be much taller than traditional wooden bridges.
Through arch bridges have no suspension mechanism so they cannot be extended by adding more load-bearing elements like beams or girders. Instead, forces are transmitted to the floor or roadbed below by means of walls called piers that support the entire weight of the bridge. Piers may be of any length but usually are at least as long as they are wide.
Stone bridges have "closed" spandrel deck arches, whereas modern metal bridges have "open" spandrel deck arch arrangements. Truss-framework constructed by linking triangles and other shapes that share load and stress forces over their whole construction. The word "truss" comes from the French for "tree trunk."
Bridge types are based on the way they are constructed. There are three main types of bridges: steel, concrete, and wood.
Steel bridges are built with either girders or trusses as the primary support system for the deck. Concrete bridges are supported by concrete piers or abutments and framed with wooden beams. Wood bridges are usually built with two parallel beams fastened to posts attached to the opposing sides of the river or road bed. Some parts of the bridge may be made of metal or another material instead. The type of bridge you will be asked about in the assessment test depends only on how much damage has been done to it. If it can be repaired, then your teacher will want to know this too so they can give you appropriate questions.
It is not necessary to know all the details about each type of bridge in order to answer assessment test questions accurately. It is enough to understand the overall concept and know that certain structures are used for certain purposes.
Materials for bridges Steel, concrete, stone, and asphalt are common materials used on bridges. Iron, wood, aluminum, rubber, and other joint materials are examples of other materials. The type of material used to construct a bridge affects how it is maintained and replaced when damaged.
Steel bridges are the most common type of bridge. They are made out of steel bars that are welded together in shapes similar to bistros or H's. The joints between each section of steel are then coated with hot-dipped galvanized steel to prevent corrosion. Bridges are usually painted white to reflect sunlight and help drivers see them at night. Older steel bridges may also be painted gray or black.
Concrete bridges are the second most common type of bridge. They are built by pouring cement into forms created for the job. The forms can be removed once the cement has cured, leaving only the bridge structure behind. Concrete bridges are very strong but they cannot be moved if needed for other traffic, so they must be rebuilt after any damage is found.
Stone bridges are built using large rocks held together with mortar. They are very durable and don't need to be replaced often, but they aren't as strong as other types of bridges. Stone bridges were commonly used before the advent of metal tools.
Traditional bridge construction materials include stone, timber, and steel, as well as reinforced and pre-stressed concrete. Aluminum and its alloys, as well as various plastics, are utilized for specific elements. Hybrid bridges combine two or more different material types.
The choice of material for a given project depends on many factors. Economic considerations are probably the most important factor in deciding material selection. The cost of materials can vary greatly depending on which material is chosen. For example, steel is much cheaper than wood, but also heavier and less flexible. Stone is very expensive but lasts forever. Upgrading existing structures to use sustainable materials is another reason for choosing one type of material over others.
In general, traditional materials are best for new projects because they're stable, proven technologies that can be designed into shape at design stages. Hybrid materials are used when environmental concerns or performance requirements demand it. For example, aluminum has great strength for its weight, but it's very vulnerable to corrosion. That makes it unsuitable for some applications (such as street lights) where exposure to weather is expected. However, when combined with other materials that provide protection (such as glass for streetside displays), hybrid solutions can be effective. Reinforced concrete uses cement as its main ingredient and adds small amounts of sand and gravel to make it stronger. It's the standard material for bridges because it's extremely durable and reliable.