Early construction materials, such as leaves, branches, and animal skins, were perishable. Later, more lasting natural materials like as clay, stone, and wood were utilized, followed by synthetic materials such as brick, concrete, metals, and plastics. The choice of material depended on your budget and where you lived. If you were rich, you could buy a house made of stone or brick. If you were poor, you might have to make do with a house built from sticks and mud.
In time, builders learned that certain materials kept their shape better when left alone. For example, a tree trunk is straight because it has been left alone over time; if it was cut down and shaped by a carpenter, it would become bent out of shape. So, trees were harvested and turned into beams and boards for use in buildings. Wood is also the primary source of fuel for heat, so it makes sense that most countries with cold climates have lots of trees!
In hot climates, people needed housing that was cool during the summer and warm in the winter. Fire is the only way to keep rooms cool in the summertime, so builders used fire-resistant materials like cement and glass when constructing homes.
At one time, almost all buildings were made of stone or wood. However, this changes as science progresses and people find ways to make buildings more efficient.
Many naturally available materials, such as clay, pebbles, sand, wood, and even twigs and leaves, have been utilized to build structures. Aside from naturally existing materials, various man-made items, some more and some less synthetic, are in use. These include metals, glass, ceramics, concrete, and plastic.
The three main sources of material for buildings are nature, technology, and labor.
Nature is the most important source of material for buildings. It provides us with many materials to use for construction purposes. For example, trees are used to make timber and bricks are made from soil.
Technology has helped us extract useful materials from the natural environment. For example, coal has been used as a fuel to make steel for hundreds of years. More recently, petroleum has replaced coal because it is easier to get and uses less energy when converted into products that can be used by humans.
Labor is also important because it is labor that transforms raw materials into usable forms. For example, timber is first harvested then processed using machinery or even people to cut it into boards and beams. The workers who do this work are called "craftsmen".
Any substance that may be utilized for construction is considered a building material. Wood, concrete, steel, cement, aggregates, bricks, clay, metal, and many more materials are regularly used. People utilized pure bricks, wood, or straw in the past. 23rd of Ordibehesht, 1399 AP. (A.D. 300.)
The most common materials used for buildings are steel and concrete. Other materials can be used depending on the needs and location of the building. Concrete is used in large quantities for building bridges, highways, and other structures. Steel is used instead when light weight or high strength is required. It is also used in combination with other materials such as glass, plastic, and rubber to create buildings with different properties.
People have been making use of stone, brick, and wood for construction purposes since ancient times. But it was not until the 19th century that the use of concrete began to grow rapidly. Today, this material represents about 90% of all buildings worldwide.
Concrete consists of water, gravel, sand, and cement. Cement is the key ingredient that makes this material strong and durable. It forms a hard surface when mixed with water and placed in an adequate shape.
Other ingredients are sometimes added to improve certain properties such as elasticity, air-tightness, color, etc. Concrete can be made from natural sources or from recycled materials.