A rib vault, also known as a ribbed vault, is an architectural element used to cover a large space, such as a church nave, that is made up of a framework of crossed or diagonally arched ribs. Roman architecture, Byzantine architecture, Islamic architecture, Romanesque architecture, and notably Gothic architecture all utilised variations. The word "vault" actually means "covering" or "cupola", and comes from Latin vultus, which means "face". Thus, a rib vault has faces formed by the ribs.
Ribs are the vertical members of a building's frame. They are usually made of wood but may be reinforced with steel or concrete. In medieval and Renaissance architecture, especially in Europe, there are often many more ribs than trusses (the horizontal members supporting the roof). Although trusses are now used instead, especially for new construction, ribbing is still commonly found on old buildings, especially those constructed of timber.
The pointed arch is one of the four main types of arch (the others being round, flat, and semi-circular), developed in the 11th century in France. It consists of two curved parts called the keystone, which together make up half the total span of an opening. The keystone is the most important element of the pointed arch, because it determines how much load can be put on the structure. If the keystone was removed, the arch would collapse under its own weight.
Gothic architects employed the ribbed vault to provide structures flexibility in roof and wall engineering. These vaults were easier to build than barrel vaults, and they were also stronger and more flexible. The ribs provided support for walls and ceilings that would otherwise have had to be made of thin material or not built at all.
Ribs can be seen in many buildings constructed during the Gothic period: French cathedrals, English parish churches, German town halls. However, they are most easily recognized in the unique vault design of Milan's Duomo. The cathedral was originally planned to be completely covered in gold, but due to cost constraints it was decided to cover it with dark green stone instead. The choice of material caused problems for the designers because green stone is very porous and does not hold up well over time. But since the ribs provide structural support as well as decoration, they remain an important feature even today.
The first ribbed vaults were probably built in France around 1150. They were later adopted by scholars and philosophers as a means of allowing light into underground rooms while keeping out noxious fumes from fireplaces and other sources of heat. In 1256, the University of Paris established itself as one of the first educational institutions to use this new form of construction.
The perpendicular junction of two barrel vaults creates a groin (or cross) vault. A rib (or ribbed) vault is supported by a set of arching diagonal ribs that split the surface of the vault into panels. A fan vault is made out of concave sections with ribs that extend out in the shape of a fan. The term "groin" comes from the fact that the underside of the vault resembles the shape of the human groin.
They were usually built as part of large church buildings and often included an entrance tower or spire. Because they had several openings, it was possible to light them from within using wall torches or candles. During the 17th century, glass windows began to be used instead.
The first recorded use of the word "vault" for this kind of roof construction was in 1380. Before then it was called either a "groined ceiling" or a "ribbed ceiling".
The groined or ribbed vault was the most popular form of roof construction during the Gothic period in Europe. It is still used today in some places like France where it is known as the "vouloir de Paris".
The earliest known example of a groin vault is found in the apse of St. Martin's Church in Hildesheim, Germany. It dates back to about 1140. The next major development in this style of roof came more than 50 years later with the introduction of pendentives.
Describe its constituent pieces and/or functions. A vault is an arched construction supported by a solid wall and four columns that springs from a cornice. Vaults expand ceiling area and provide a self-forming roof for a structure. They are used as room dividers, passageways, and storage areas. Ceiling panels are attached to the frame of the vault. The size of the vault can be adjusted by adding or removing panels.
The word "vault" comes from the Latin word "vallis," meaning "hill." When used in reference to building construction, the term means a large open space within a walled enclosure: a vaulted ceiling. In architecture, vaults are particularly useful when you need more floor space than walls alone would provide. The key feature of a vault is its arching shape, which allows light and air to flow through the space while keeping out weather and intruders.
In Christian churches, vaults are used to store worship materials and instruments. Vests are worn by musicians to protect their clothes from getting stained by blood during rituals performed during services.
In science labs, vaults are used to house laboratory animals. Scientists study how organisms react to different conditions in controlled settings with the help of tools such as heat, chemicals, and radiation.
A vault is a structural element in building construction that consists of an arrangement of arches, commonly forming a ceiling or roof. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Vault The fundamental barrel shape, which originated in ancient Egypt and the Middle East, is essentially a continuous succession of arches deep enough to fill a three-dimensional space. A key feature of a true vault is its ability to bear weight from above as well as below, which is not possible with trusses or beams. This is why vaults are used in buildings like churches, where they provide ample room for people to walk about or store goods without danger of damage.
Other names for vaults include coffered ceilings, dado ceilings, and architraves. Vaults can be made of wood, steel, or concrete, but they are most often made of stone because they need to be strong and durable. Vents allow air to flow through a wall or roof cavity between the exterior and interior surfaces. These vents may be simple openings cut into the wall or roof material or they may be complex systems of channels and ducts built into the structure. Vents should be located so that they do not interfere with the function of the vault.
In architecture, a vaulted ceiling is a system of intersecting arches or other shapes that create a decorative pattern over a room.
By permitting the inclusion of clerestory windows, ribbed groin vaults revolutionized Romanesque architecture. Until then, buildings had been light-filled spaces with few if any openings for cross-ventilation. The addition of ribbed gables allowed for the installation of large windows that could be used not only for light but also for ventilation.
Ribbed gables are one of the most distinctive features of Romanesque architecture and can be found in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. They're named after the ribs that run along the edge of the roof. Originally, these were made of wood but now usually consist of steel or concrete. The ribs provide extra support for the roof and allow more light to enter the building through the many openings between them. Without ribbed roofs, it would have been difficult if not impossible to fit so many windows into a building.
The first ribbed gable was built around 1100 in Burgundy and its design has remained largely unchanged since then. It consists of a series of curved ribs rising from a central tower to an eaves line at the top of the wall. The tower may be square or round and the walls may be plain or decorated with carved panels.