The majority of medieval houses were chilly, wet, and gloomy. It was sometimes warmer and lighter outside the house than within. When windows were present, they were very small apertures with wooden shutters that were closed at night or in severe weather for security reasons. There were no glass windows in medieval times; anything seen from outside a house was done so from a window.
Medieval houses did have one major advantage over their modern counterparts: They were cheap to build. A builder could cut down many trees, build his own tools, and collect any other materials needed to construct a house. The average price of a medieval home was about as much as a good horse and saddle. In fact, a royal decree in 1350 ordered that all masts from wrecked ships be used instead of money when building homes for poor people.
Most houses were made of wood, although some large castles were built of stone. The typical house had a roof made of wood shingles or tiles. The walls were usually made of timber frames filled with wattle and daub - sticks and mud mixed together and dried into clay-like material. The higher up you went in society, the bigger the rooms were likely to be. Bedrooms were often given over two floors for privacy. Living quarters tended to be on the first floor while storage space was found on the lower levels. Attics were also popular places to store goods.
Living conditions were terrible for people who lived throughout the Medieval period. Typical homes were chilly, wet, and gloomy. Only light and fresh air would enter via an open door. By the conclusion of the plague, one in every five Londoners had perished. Disease was a constant threat to life, especially for infants and young children.
People didn't have much access to medical care. Doctors weren't always able to cure diseases, and even if they could, their treatments were not modern. Surgery was performed on patients who survived long enough to reach the hospital. The majority of injuries and illnesses were treated with herbs or minerals from around the world.
There were some improvements made to living conditions during the Renaissance and Enlightenment periods. People began to build houses with multiple rooms instead of just one or two. There were also efforts made to make cities more liveable. Paris, for example, got its first public toilets in 1772. In London, there were attempts made to clean up the Thames River but these weren't completed until 1851.
In conclusion, living conditions were poor for most people throughout the Medieval period. However, there were some improvements made to living conditions at the end of the 14th century and beginning of the 15th century.
These new medieval homes were constructed with crude logs, mud, and straw. These Medieval dwellings not only gave additional space, but also protection from the elements, and peasants could finally light fires inside their own homes.
There were two main reasons why people built houses in the medieval time. The first reason is land. In Europe, you needed your own piece of land to grow crops or raise animals so people needed to find a way to protect their land against erosion and other damage while still providing them with food and clothing. Houses were built with this in mind; they provided shelter for themselves and their families while still giving them enough room to grow crops or keep animals.
The second reason is power. During the medieval time, most people were farmers who used simple tools which required a lot of human effort. They couldn't always rely on the wind or the rain to help them work hard all day long, so they needed a way to provide themselves with energy so that they could work more. Houses were built with this in mind; they used natural materials that were easy to find then burned at very low temperatures for a long time these fuels provided people with enough energy to do some very difficult jobs.
In conclusion, houses were built in the medieval time because it was necessary to provide yourself with protection and have space to grow crops or raise animals.
Windows had wooden shutters fastened by an iron bar, but they were rarely glazed throughout the 11th and 12th centuries. By the 13th century, a king or powerful baron would have "white (greenish) glass" in some of his windows, and glazed windows were popular by the 14th century. But most castles and monasteries built during this time were not equipped with glass windows.
The first known mention of glass window panes comes from Charlemagne, who received a gift of 1,000 pieces of stained glass from the pope. They are said to have been made in France and Germany and to have shown scenes from the lives of both saints and sinners. The fact that these windows were given as gifts shows that they were not sold in shops but rather made to order for rich and royal clients.
By the late 11th century, glassmakers in Europe began using clear and colored glass in combination with wood in small panels called "glazings." The word "window" came to be used instead for these panels that could be opened or closed by sliding frames. By the early 13th century, French courts were opening their doors and windows during public trials to allow in fresh air and to prevent onlookers from hearing the cases!
In England, King Edward I ordered that all his castles be provided with glass windows by 1350. This was part of an effort to show his power and authority over his subjects.