The models and architectural language of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as influence for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics in the Italianate style. The result was a new formal language that could be used to design houses across Europe and America.
Both Renaissance and Baroque art and architecture originated in Italy, with the Renaissance beginning in the 15th century and the Baroque beginning in the 17th. Baroque architecture was not so much a structural style as it was centered on surface adornment to appeal to the eye. The main features of Baroque architecture include dramatic chiseled ornamentation, asymmetrical massing, use of light and color, and an overall feeling of movement or excitement.
While both Renaissance and Baroque styles are derived from classical antiquity, they represent a departure from the formal symmetry, clear division of function, and precise mathematical proportions that characterized ancient Greek and Roman building techniques. Instead, medieval architects developed their own unique styles that combined the best aspects of both classical and non-classical architecture. These styles came to be known as Gothic (12th century), Romanesque (11th century), and Early Modern (14th century).
Gothic architecture is characterized by its high vaulted ceilings, pointed arches, and intricate stonework. It also uses asymmetry and irregular lines rather than regular squares and rectangles. Early Gothic buildings have very tall narrow windows with thin vertical slats of wood for glass. By the Late Gothic period (about 1450-1550) larger panes of glass had been introduced which allowed more light into the house.
Neoclassical Architecture Styles Palladian architecture is influenced by the villas of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, who was inspired by the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. In the United Kingdom, the architect Robert Adam became well-known for his Palladian country mansions. In North America, the term is used to describe buildings by John Nicholson or Nicholas Hawksmoor.
Neoclassicism is the revival of interest in classical antiquity that began in the 18th century with the Enlightenment. The style is characterized by symmetry, order, grace, balance, and propriety in design. The main features of Neoclassicism are a rational structure, formal balance, harmony between inside and out, and clarity of purpose expressed in functionalism. The term "neoclassical" has since then come to denote any style that imitates the formality and order of classical antiquity.
During the Age of Enlightenment in Europe, there was great interest in all things Greek and Roman. Great thinkers such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau published books on both subjects. This interest spread to artists and architects who were looking for new ways to express human dignity. The neoclassical style was adopted because of its formality and rationality which were important factors in the intellectual movement at the time.
Architecture The Early Renaissance in Italy (1401–95) was a period in Western architecture. The Renaissance began in Italy, where architecture had always retained a classical flavor. It spread from there to the rest of Europe and later to other countries around the world.
The Renaissance is often called "the age of reason" because of the increasing rationality of culture at that time. Mathematics, science, and humanism were all based on reasoning rather than authority, so this new attitude spread not only to art but also to philosophy, literature, and music.
However, the Renaissance wasn't completely rational: it kept some elements from the past such as mathematics, science, and geometry that could be used for architectural purposes. Also, the Renaissance was a cultural movement that included many different fields beyond just art, so even though it is often associated with artists, musicians, philosophers, scientists, etc., not every person who lived during this time was involved in the arts or humanities.
For example, Leonardo da Vinci developed many inventions that are still used today, such as the helicopter, tank, and parachute. Michelangelo painted the famous frescos in the Sistine Chapel; these paintings tell the story of creation using symbols instead of words. Galileo discovered our solar system's planets using instruments and math instead of mythological stories about gods.
The evident distinguishing traits of ancient Roman architecture were absorbed by Renaissance architecture. However, the shapes and purposes of buildings, as well as the arrangement of towns, had altered throughout time, as seen by the ensuing synthesis of classical and 16th-century forms. Ancient monuments served as models for new structures, and their dimensions provided a basis for building plans.
The Renaissance architect was attracted to antiquity, not only because of its beauty but also because it offered practical lessons in design. He copied many features from the ancients: columns, architraves, doorways, and even toilets! But he also innovated greatly through the use of marble, bronze, and other novel materials. For example, he often incorporated large windows that let in much needed light but which could be opened up to allow cool air into hot climates or heat out of cold climates.
The Renaissance architect was aware that his designs would be seen by others, so they were made with regard to appearance as well as function. Public spaces such as piazzas, squares, and galleries were used to display wealth and power, while private rooms included bathrooms with toilets.
Renaissance architects wanted their buildings to be beautiful, so they used fine materials such as marble, crystal, and gold to create decorations and sculptures. They also used painting as a form of decoration during this period.