The minar is constructed with several stacked flanged and cylindrical shafts in the inside and fluted columns on the exterior, all encircled by bands of elaborate carving in the Kufic style of Islamic calligraphy, giving the minar the appearance of bundled reeds. The interiors are carved out of solid rock, with walls and ceilings made of ashlar (large dressed stones) laid in regular courses, with smaller stones used as fillers. The carvings depict maps of the heavens at various times throughout history, as well as animals, humans, and religious figures.
The Qutb Minar was built in AD 1191 by the Indian ruler Al Qutbuddin Muhammad Shirazi to commemorate his father, who had died fighting the invading Mongols. It took 20 years to complete the project. The minar stands 48 meters high and is composed of three sections called "jalis" (walls). The first section is 7.5 meters tall and made of pine trees harvested from the surrounding forests; this section was originally painted red but now is mostly white. The second section is 17 meters tall and consists of sandstone taken from the nearby Ganga River; this section was also originally painted red but now is mostly white. The third and tallest section is 22 meters tall and made of marble extracted from a nearby quarry; this section was also originally painted red but now is mostly white.
He also increased its top two layers. The Qutb Minar is a fluted (grooved) sandstone tower with many marble inlays. Balconies divide five storeys, each of which is distinguished by bands of beautifully carved Koranic inscriptions (Quran). The bottom three layers are built of red and buff sandstone alternating. The minar reaches a height of 72 meters (236 feet) and has four stages. The main entrance to the complex is through an enormous wooden door held together by iron straps.
The Qutb Minar was built by the Muslim ruler Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad in 1324 during the reign of his father, Alauddin Khalji. It is said that before he died, Ghiyath al-Din asked his court poet I'timad-ud-daula to write some lines in honor of the occasion. The poet complied but added some sarcastic lines of his own as well. Thus was born one of India's greatest poems: "I'timad ud Daula".
Besides being a great poet, I'timad-ud-daula was also a philosopher who had learned Islam from scholars in Baghdad. So the people around Ghiyath al-Din were very wise men. When they saw what had been written on the stone plaque laid at the base of the minar, they decided to get rid of I'timad-ud-daula.
Qutub Minar, constructed of red sandstone, is a true gem of Mughal Islamic artistry. The design is inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Western Afghanistan, which commemorates the location of the ancient city of Firuzkuh. The tower's height is 68 meters (223 feet) and it has 72 beautiful carved stone bands, which are divided into three sections: the first section has images of plants and animals; the second section has geometric designs; while the third section exhibits repeated patterns of interlocking circles and rings.
The minar was built as a memorial to Muhammad Bin Qasim, who led an army of Muslims across the Indus River in 997 AD. The battle that ensued is said to have resulted in the death of up to 250,000 people. It is this fact that makes Qutub Minar important in history as well as architecture.
The minar stands on the banks of the Yamuna River in New Delhi. It used to be painted black but now is mostly white. Inside the tower are many chambers where royal slaves and prisoners were kept before they were executed.
Qutub Minar has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981.
Structure of the Qutub Minar Qutub Minar was inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan in terms of architecture and design. The lotus border sculptures, garlands, and looping bells became part of the local sensitivities. The tower comprises five tapering stories connected by a 379-step spiral staircase. On each floor, there is a large veranda surrounded by rooms for meditation and prayer.
The Qutub Minar was built during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325-1351 AD). He was the fifth ruler of the Tughluq dynasty who ruled over most of South Asia. The minar stands for 90 meters (100 yards) and is made of red sandstone with white marble decorative elements. It is believed to be the world's tallest free-standing stone structure before it was surpassed by a similar monument in Vladimir Russia in 1400 feet (400 meters).
Qutub Minar remains one of Delhi's most important historical sites. It has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981. The area around the minar has been turned into a park called Qutub Minar Complex. In addition to the Qutub Minar, this park also contains tombs, mosques, and temples of various religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
Nowadays, the Qutub Minar attracts more than one million visitors every year.