Sandstone According to Blyth, the oldest confirmed evidence of building at Karnak belongs to the reign of Wah-Ankh Intef II, an Egyptian monarch who reigned almost 4,000 years ago. His "eight-sided" sandstone column carries the name Amun-Ra and is engraved with the words "he [the king] constructed it as his memorial for that deity..."
Other ancient sources say the builders were Osirians who may have been hired by the government to work on the project. They used wood, stone, and mud for their structures. The Osirians were a tribe from around today's Sudan who migrated to Egypt about 3000 B.C. Egypsies are another name they're known by. It is believed that they built most if not all of the monuments at Karnak.
The Osirians were extremely successful in carrying out this project because there are many parts of the world where no metal tools were available so they must have used something else to carve the stones.
Also, some historians believe that the Osirians may have helped build the great pyramids at Giza which are also made of sandstone.
Finally, it is known that after the Osirians, different people built up the site over time. One of these was the Pharaoh Akhenaten who abandoned traditional religion in favor of a new form of worship called Atenism.
In most cases, the Akhenaten architecture is apparent, and no other structure of this era is known to have existed at Karnak from which such blocks might have originated. It appears that this temple is the only structure erected in ancient Egypt with such little sandstone pieces. The similarity between these blocks and those used in building the Step Pyramid at Giza has led some scholars to believe that they may have been provided by the king's builder as well.
Akhenaten abandoned the city he had made his capital and moved his family to a new site some 30 miles away, where he started again from scratch. He ordered the removal of all his predecessors' buildings from the area around Karnak Temple and had them transported to the new site, where they were used to build his own residence. This act alone would seem to indicate that Akhenaten did not want any connection with his predecessors. However, later research has shown that some of these buildings were rebuilt by others after they were removed from their original locations, so this evidence is not conclusive.
Furthermore, although there are no remains of any temples at Amarna, it cannot be said with certainty that Akhenaten destroyed all existing structures in order to build his own temple. Some historians think that he may have wanted to create a new religious focus for the country in order to undermine the influence of the priests who still controlled most aspects of life at Karnak.
Construction at Karnak began around 4,000 years ago and lasted until the Romans gained control of Egypt roughly 2,000 years ago. Every Egyptian king who worked at Karnak left their unique architectural imprint. The site is divided into several areas including a complex of temples, statues, and other structures dedicated to the Egyptian gods.
Why do we know this based on history? In 1922 an English archaeologist named Howard Carter discovered the first royal tomb at Karnak when he came across a small chamber hidden behind some columns. He thought it might contain the remains of a noble woman, but instead found two huge blocks with carvings that still are visible today. One image in particular—a giant statue called the "Rape of Deir el-Bahri"—spurred Carter to investigate further. As it turned out, this was the burial place of Pharaoh Amenhotep III who had died about three hundred years earlier. Carter returned to the site many times over the next few years and uncovered more than thirty royal tombs full of amazing treasures. Today, almost all of these objects are in Cairo's Museum of Modern Art.
Who were the rulers of ancient Egypt? Egypt was a country made up of many different provinces or "nomes" which sent representatives to meet with the king. This system allowed the king to consult with those who knew him best without having to travel throughout his territory.
It was used for cleansing by the ancient Egyptians and was located outside the main foyer of the Karnak Temple. Aside from the rituals and occasions of monarch coronation in ancient Egyptian civilisation, there is a scarab statue from the reign of Pharaonic king Amenhotep III. It is made of gold and has been preserved well over 3000 years later.
The statue is 28 cm high and has the king wearing ceremonial robes with the wings of victory encircling him. The scarab is attached to his forehead just above his eye and it is believed that he used this piece of jewellery during ritual ceremonies. The statue dates back to about 1450 B.C. and is on display at the British Museum in London.
In addition, there are several other examples of scarabs in different museums around the world. One can only imagine how many more relics have been destroyed over the centuries!
Also known as the death's head, the scarab beetle comes in various sizes and shapes. They are red or black in color and have six legs. The female scarab lays eggs inside her cocoon which will hatch into larvae (grubs) that feed on vegetable matter before transforming into adults. After approximately one year, the female beetle dies and becomes food for her offspring.
The symbol of the scarab embodies rebirth and renewal because it transforms from a tiny egg to a complete insect within a single growing season.
A canal was initially dug out to the Nile at the approach to the Temple of Amun at Karnak in ancient Thebes (modern Luxor), finishing at a wharf erected by Ramesses II on the western extremity of an avenue surrounded by two rows of ram-headed sphinxes. This is the most important feature seen from the west when approaching Thebes from Egypt's Western Desert.
The first documented use of canals in Ancient Egypt was during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser (2670-2590 B.C.) at Saqqara, but they were probably in existence before that time. Canals provided access to areas where earthmoving equipment could not be used and also allowed for the drainage of land that might otherwise have been lost to floods. They also made it possible to cultivate land that would otherwise have been unfit for cultivation.
The people who built the pyramids also constructed canals for maintenance purposes as well as to provide water for their crops. Some canals were even used as public streets during certain times of year. For example, during the annual flooding of the Nile River, much of the valley floor was under about a foot of water. But after the waters receded, the banks of the canal would be lined with trees and other vegetation again.
People started using canals for transportation around 1750 B.C., and by 1550 B.C., they were being used extensively for trade.