The brick arches served as a load-bearing medium for the above storey's weight. It also functioned as a brick lintel against which the weight was acting. Burnt clay bricks and lime mortar were the most often utilized building materials. The use of stone for construction is reported from various sites including Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.
Brick architecture was the most common form of construction in ancient India. Limestone and sandstone were also used to construct buildings. The Indus Valley Civilization was well known for its large megaliths that were used for monuments and burial grounds. This civilization flourished between 3300 and 1300 BC in what is now Pakistan.
The oldest preserved wooden structure in Asia belongs to India. Called the Jai Singh II Temple, it was built in 1735 in Jaipur. It is believed to be based on an earlier temple built by its founder, Jai Singh.
Ancient Indian architects used a variety of designs and techniques for their buildings. Some of the more common features included: central towers, domes, bifurcations, galleries, and verandahs. Ceilings were usually made of wood or plaster while floors were usually made of stone or carpeting.
The main advantage of brick architecture was its durability.
Brick was the most common construction material, and it was used to create towns, forts, temples, and residences. But some early cities are believed to have been made up of stone rubble with mud bricks placed over them when the city was abandoned. Brick came in many different shapes and sizes; some were as small as dust, while others were as large as a house.
Brick has been found in almost all ancient civilizations that used it for building projects. It is easy to work with and durable, which is why it is still used today in some countries. Brick architecture was popular from about 3000 B.C. to 500 A.D., but it was not the only form of architecture used during this time period.
Some scholars believe that brick may have been used because of its size: it could be carried on men's backs over long distances before being assembled by other workers into larger structures. But others think that mud bricks may have been used instead, since they can be easily made at home and do not need much heat or power to build with. Either way, brick or mud, these ancient builders knew how to use their resources wisely to bring people together in community, provide shelter, and teach us about history.
Levied laborers constructed the majority of the structures out of locally available mud brick and limestone. The post and lintel method of construction was used to build monumental structures. Many structures were astronomically oriented. Altars, statues, and tombs were also built from this material.
Brick making had advanced considerably by the time Egypt became a monarchy in about 3000 B.C. But even then many buildings were still made with mud brick or stone taken from nearby sources.
The Egyptians invented standardized measures for both weight and volume. They divided the earth into 12 parts (one part being around 3/5th of a degree), which is why we divide a circle into 12 parts too. They also divided a square into 10 parts (1 part being 1/10 of a side). This may have been done for convenience since they usually work with whole numbers.
They used the metric system only for scientific purposes after they imported Greek scientists in the 4th century B.C.
In conclusion, the Egyptians built using simple tools and labor-intensive methods that could be done by a group of people with little education. They chose their building materials carefully and used them to the best advantage. However, even with these advantages, most buildings were simple and functional.
Wood was always favored over stone, and glazed ceramic tiles were the preferred roof material. The most common type of structure, at least for major structures for the elite or public usage such as temples, halls, and gate towers, was erected on a raised platform of compacted earth and coated with brick or stone. Wood was used for everything from boats to weapons; bamboo particularly well suited to military purposes.
Ancient Chinese houses were usually simple structures without special architectural features, but they often included some kind of enclosure to provide some protection from the elements and intruders. Ancient Chinese cities were built in the same way as other ancient civilizations - with streets and squares - but they also tended to include protective walls around the outside to prevent people fleeing into the wilderness when under attack. These defenses were made out of wood and packed dirt.
The first cities in China appeared around the 11th century BC and they were mainly located in the south of the country near the borders with Vietnam and Thailand. Gradually more northern cities began to appear around the 1st century AD and by the 3rd century AD there were about 500 urban centers in all parts of China. But beginning in the 5th century AD, many of these cities were destroyed by invading armies from the north-west: the Rourans, Khitans, Liao, Jin, and Yuan.
After the establishment of the Communist government in 1949, most archaeological work in China has been carried out by government institutions.
Stone, which could be obtained locally, was the most commonly used construction material. Construction blocks might be sourced from quarries located outside of the city. In addition, mortar, which was created by burning limestone with wood, was utilized in the construction process. The temple walls were decorated with stucco finishing. The well-known Mayan Pyramids in Mexico were built using stone extracted from quarries around the city.
Maya architecture is known for its complex design and high quality workmanship. They used advanced mathematics to calculate the size and placement of stones, which led to much larger buildings being constructed without using more stone than necessary. For example, one pyramid uses about 6 million stone pieces but only about 20,000 bricks!
The Maya developed a method of cementing together large rocks using lime and water. This new material had great strength and was easy to work with; therefore it became widely used in construction projects throughout Mayan territory.
They also made use of copper tools and weapons, jade objects, and even gold jewelry. The quantity of metal used by the Maya is quite surprising - it's estimated that they consumed about 7% of the total weight of silver ever mined in the world!
For example, one city may have had several hundred bells of different sizes manufactured from bronze. The largest bell that has been found measures 4 meters (13 feet) in diameter and weighs about 40 tons!
They frequently employed obsidian, copper, andesite, flint, wood, sidian, and chert as materials. Among the native construction resources, the Aztecs employed wood and local soil, as well as a type of sun-dried brick known as adobe. These were the most prevalent materials used in the construction of Aztec structures. However, they also used stone if available such as tuff, lava, and limestone.
The Aztecs made extensive use of metal tools, including knives, axes, spears, and swords. They obtained much of this metal from Spain and Mexico itself. The metals used by the Aztecs include gold, silver, zinc, copper, iron, lead, and mercury. But the most important metal used by the people was bronze. This was available in large quantities within their own country.
Aztec art is rich in symbolism and meaning. Some of the common symbols used in art include: feathers, hearts, skulls, snakes, spiders, stars, moons, suns, and rainbows. These symbols were important to the Aztecs and often used in their artwork as metaphors for life or reality.
Art played an important role in the society of the Aztecs. It could be used to show respect, encourage good behavior, or even as punishment if someone wronged the king. The Aztec artists would usually use their own blood when painting sacred images or rituals of death.