The barrel-vault, groined (or four-part vault), and dome vaults were the three types of vaults employed. The barrel-vault was by far the most common type used throughout Romanesque Europe. It was made up of a series of barrels set on end with their ends meeting at a central point and held together by transverse ties. The groined vault was identical to the barrel-vault except that it had an additional row of half-barrels above the first. This added height would have helped support the roof after the weight of the ceiling materials became too much for the base of the columns to bear alone.
The third type of vault is the dome vault. It was developed in Italy in the 11th century and quickly spread throughout Europe. A dome vault has a circular wall rising from a square or rectangular base. The intersection of the wall with the base is called the keystone. The dome is built of concrete or stone with wood beams inside holding it up. At the top is a shell of metal plates covered with asphalt or mortar.
Domes were used instead of groins because they are more light-weight and easier to construct. They could also be painted or decorated with images like the barrel-vault.
While cross vaults were employed on the third level of the Colosseum, barrel vaults were utilized on the first and second tiers (Pepe). Barrel vaults were essentially an arched extrusion that went through the passageways (Figure 9). They were made of wood and covered with copper. The ends of the vault protruded into the passage way, which allowed people to climb up onto them.
The first two vaults that were built inside the Colosseum were of this type. However, as time passed and the number of spectators increased, it became necessary to build larger and larger vaults. These new vaults were usually of a kind called "star" vaults because they consisted of a series of intersecting ribs that formed a pattern like a star. Some of these vaults were quite large; for example, the third tier of the arena had 31 of them. They were all made of wood and some of them were even movable so that actors could pass through them at will.
There are still several parts of the Colosseum today that are preserved exactly as they were found after its destruction: the sand outside the entrance gates is still white, there are pieces of marble lying around, and some of the arches have been restored to their original form. This shows that not only ancient buildings but also modern ones can be appreciated by everyone who visits Rome.
Vaults, also known as vault bays, are similar to bays in that they are the regions between supports. Vaulting refers to the use of a vaulting system, which was central to Roman architecture. Vaulting enabled the Romans to construct such magnificent monuments as Rome's Pantheon and Colosseum. The word "vault" comes from the Latin word vacuus, meaning empty.
Roman builders used wood or metal beams to create open-air rooms beneath their structures where rain and snow would drain away. They were often used as storage areas or even living spaces. The roofs were made of thick layers of clay tiles covered with gravel and dirt. The walls were built of stone blocks held together with mortar. Open windows let in light and air but also exposed the rooms to theft and damage from weather-related factors.
People needed protection from the elements during wintertime, so houses were usually equipped with some form of shelter against the cold. Sometimes these were simple tents made of cloth or tied sheets of wood that could be set up in a short amount of time. But if people had money enough they might want something more permanent, like a vault.
A vault is an architectural feature that creates a roof over a room or space. It consists of an opening at the top of a wall or ceiling, typically about head height, into which concrete or brick is inserted.
By permitting the inclusion of clerestory windows, ribbed groin vaults revolutionized Romanesque architecture. Until then, buildings had been dark and gloomy inside, without any light other than that provided by small high-up windows. The introduction of the ribbed groin vault allowed architects to create large open spaces filled with light from above, transforming the interior of European churches from something dark and mysterious into a more open and airy environment.
Also called "girder roofs", "ribbed gable roofs", or "groin vaults", these are the most common types of roof in Europe. They consist of long, flat boards attached to the tops of wooden beams called "girders" or "joists". The ribs provide support for heavy tiles or shingles which cover the surface of the groin vault. The word "vault" comes from a Latin word meaning "to cover with earth". Vents allow smoke to escape from the building's interior while allowing rainwater to drain away. Windows let in some sunlight but tend to be small because much of the church was reserved for religious objects like statues and stained glass. A few larger windows were built into the walls near the top of the nave (the area where the congregation used to sit).
A vault (French voute, from Italian volta) is a self-supporting arching structure in architecture that serves to cover an area with a ceiling or roof. The components of a vault produce lateral force, which necessitates counter resistance. For this reason, the word "vault" can be used as a general term for any kind of arched construction.
The word "vault" comes from Latin vaulta, meaning "an opening in a wall or ceiling through which something can be seen," and ultimately from PIE root wes- "to see." The earliest known use of the word was in English was in 1325. Before that time it was usually called a "chamber" or "gallery".
Vaults have been used since ancient times for protecting rooms, galleries, and other spaces where access by people is not desired or possible. They are also used as viewing platforms and as decorative features in buildings. The word is sometimes used interchangeably with cavetto, but this is incorrect; a cavetto is a half-round section of a wall containing a window (or sometimes just a hole), while a vault is a structural element forming the underside of a roof or ceiling.
There are several types of vault structures, including the dome, the shell, and the tent. Vents are small openings between ribs of a vaulted ceiling through which air can flow.