The earliest farmers in central and western Europe brought the Neolithic long house form circa 5000 BCE, or 7,000 years ago. These farming communities were established in groups of six to twelve people and housed huge extended families and relatives. They also kept livestock (mainly sheep and goats) and collected food for their houses and themselves. Long houses were probably made from wood, although stone versions have been found.
There are two main types of long house: the entrance porch type and the end-post type. The end-post long house has walls made of wooden posts set into the ground with a roof of woven branches or leaves. The entrance porch long house has walls made of vertical logs or poles set into the ground with a roof of woven branches or leaves. Both types of long house had one large opening at one end for entering and exiting the house. The doors and windows were often made of wood.
People started building longer and longer houses as time went on. By the Middle Bronze Age (about 2000 to 1500 BCE), Europeans were living in houses over 20 meters long. These buildings had multiple rooms used for different purposes. For example, one room might be used as a kitchen while another was used for sleeping. People also began to build larger and larger villages as they became more successful at farming. By the Iron Age (about 500 CE), most people in Europe were living in towns.
People began the Neolithic period at various dates in different countries, therefore people began to build dwellings in Sudan, Egypt, and West Asia around 10,000 BC, and in Greece around 6000 BC. People in England did not begin to build dwellings until around 3000 BC.
The oldest known house in North America was built by Native Americans in the lower Niagara River valley near present-day Buffalo, New York, about 1450 years ago. It was made out of wood and covered with clay.
The first European house was built in Germany by Karl Friedrich Schumacher in 1732. It was made out of stone and had a thatched roof.
Today's homes are much more sophisticated and modern than those of past generations. Most modern houses are constructed using one of several standardized techniques developed by architects over time: the stick style, the brick style, the frame style, and the concrete block style. These techniques are used alone or in combination with each other. For example, a frame house might have exposed beams inside and out, while a brick house would be completely enclosed by walls on all sides except for a door or window.
When a family grows larger or if they want to keep an eye on their children when they are outside, a playhouse can be built for them.
Who constructed the first houses? Early people erected temporary shelters, but early farmers in the Middle East built the first permanent dwellings some 11,000 years ago. People utilized river boulders to create some of the oldest dwellings around that period at Zawi Chemi Shanidar in the Zagros Mountains. They made tools from bone and stone, cultivated crops, and hunted animals to survive.
People began building more substantial structures about 9500 B.C., but it was not until about 3500 B.C. that people started building true houses: those consisting of several rooms with windows and doors. The Egyptians are known for their sophisticated construction techniques and have left us with many documents detailing the procedures used by ancient builders. For example, workers used 2x4 wooden beams to construct houses without using nails or screws. They also made use of mudbrick as a cheap alternative to stone.
About 500 B.C., Greek scientists such as Pythagoras and Euclid published books on mathematics and science, which greatly advanced the field of architecture. Around A.D. 100, Roman architects such as Vitruvius developed guidelines for builders to follow when constructing buildings, including rules on proper measurements for walls and roofs.
The Chinese are credited with building the first house around 7,000 years ago, but historians believe that they may have been building larger versions of existing tents at this time.
The earliest stone constructions are most likely the three hearths discovered in Jura about 6000 BCE. With the advent of agriculture, groups of settlers began erecting stone dwellings on what is now Scottish land some 6,000 years ago, followed by the first settlements 500 years later. These were made of earth and timber with thatched roofs.
People started building houses about 9,500 years ago. They used stones as building materials because they were available near their homes or places where they hunted and fished. The first buildings were only shelters with no more than two rooms. They might have been used for storage or even as kennels for hunting dogs.
About 3,500 years ago, people began constructing larger houses with walls and floors made out of wood. They also added windows and doors to the sides and top of the house. By 1000 CE large towns had arisen around central markets where people could trade goods including meat, fish, vegetables, and minerals.
In 1770, after hundreds of years without any changes to its laws, Scotland adopted a new civil code called "Scots Law". It included rules on contracts, property, and crimes and punishments. For example, it abolished the concept of dueling for resolving disputes between parties who had not agreed on a method of settlement. Instead, individuals would sit together in a jury and decide how to resolve the dispute.
The first dwellings in ancient Egypt were erected circa 6,000 B.C. during the Predynastic period of the Stone Age. The first ancient dwellings were constructed in the wattle and daub style, which meant that branches and twigs were intertwined and then coated with clay or mud. These initial structures were only large enough for one person who slept on the floor.
During the Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 B.C.), people began to build two-story homes. The floors of these houses were often made of stone while the walls and ceilings were made of wood. The Egyptians also started using bricks for the first time and some buildings used as many as 20 million bricks!
During the New Kingdom (1550-1070 B.c.), more elaborate homes were being built and by now they were starting to look like what we know today as "Egyptian" houses. These new homes had several rooms, with some even having separate apartments for each family member. They also started using glass in some windows instead of wooden shutters.
In conclusion, Egyptians started building houses over 3,000 years ago and since then they have been evolving and improving upon their house designs.
A typical longhouse was around 80 by 18 by 18 feet (24.4 by 5.5 by 5.5 m) in size and was designed to house up to twenty or more families, the majority of whom were matrilineally connected. Property and inheritance were handed down through the maternal line under the people's matrilineal kinship structure. Women had authority over their sons' marriages. Inheritance usually followed the male heir. If there was no son, then the property went to the daughter or another female relative.
Long houses were built with wood and thatch or skinned logs. They could be one-room structures with a central area for cooking and gathering or they could have several rooms for each family member. The roofs were made of grass, clay, or wooden shingles. Longhouses were well suited to Alaska's climate because they kept out most of the heat in the summer and allowed in much-needed sunlight in the winter.
In addition to housing, the long house served as a community center where trade occurred, stories were told, games were played, and rituals were performed. It also served as the local government headquarters where laws were decided upon and justice dispensed. Finally, it was here that big decisions about war and peace were made.
People began building long houses about 500 years ago in what is now Siberia. Because men spent so much time at hunting camps and villages, women needed homes where they could feel safe. The long house gave women this opportunity.