Originally erected by Emperor Hadrian in the first century A.D. (120s–130s), the villa-estate sprawls across more than 300 acres, blending imperial power (negotium) and courtly pleasure (otium). It is one of the largest and most complex creations of its kind in Europe.
Hadrian's Villa is located near Tivoli in Italy. The site has been excavated since 1884 but many other structures from the villa have been moved to other museums around the world.
Emperor Hadrian loved hunting wild animals and it is believed that this is why he built such a large estate. The area around Hadrian's Villa was filled with forests of oak and beech trees at the time of the emperor's death in A.D. 138. Today, the villa sits in an open field among fragments of ancient walls and buildings.
The villa was constructed as a copy of Athens' Academy, where students from all over the empire learned how to govern themselves in a peaceful society. It included a library, baths, and gardens where plants from all over the empire were grown.
Hadrian wanted his new city to have a pure Greek culture so churches and temples were built along with shops and public spaces.
Villa Romana A rich Roman family's villa was frequently more larger and more pleasant than their city house. There were several rooms, such as servants' quarters, courtyards, baths, pools, storage rooms, workout rooms, and gardens. They also featured contemporary conveniences like indoor plumbing and heated flooring.
A Roman villa was not like a modern house; it was usually built around a central courtyard. The walls of the building were made of bricks or stone, but the roofs were made of wood or thatch. The thatched roofs were easy to maintain and less expensive than tiles or concrete, but they leaked too. The wooden roofs needed repair or replacement every few years.
The floors of a Roman villa were often made of marble or other stone, but sometimes they were made of clay or dirt. If the house had no basement, then there would be no need for any light wells or drains because all the waste water would flow into a single drain located in the center of the yard. If the house did have a basement, then there would be two sets of doors: one for entering from the yard and another for descending into the cellar. There might also be an entranceway with steps leading up to a porch or gallery above the main door.
In a wealthy Roman household, it was common for many people to live together in one place called a "villa".
A villa is a form of residence that was once an upper-class rural house in ancient Rome. In current language, "villa" can refer to a variety of different types and sizes of dwellings, ranging from suburban semi-detached double villas to wildland-urban border residences.
They were usually built in clusters around a central open space called a pergola or loggia. The pergola was used as an outdoor room for dining under the stars, but could also be enclosed to provide more protection from the elements. Inside the pergola, columns supported an opening through which sunlight could stream into the building while still providing shade from the heat of the sun. Walls inside the pergola might be made of marble or other stone, but they would also often have wooden frames with plaster or lime wash on the outside to match the exteriors of her other buildings. The floors would be made of wood, stone, or mosaic. The ceilings might be flat or vaulted.
The word "villa" is derived from Latin villa, meaning "country house." In Italian, French, and Spanish, the word for "house" is also the word for "village," so there are two words that mean almost exactly the same thing. But in English, we use the word "villa" to describe larger structures than a country house.
The word "palace" comes from the famed Palatine Hill in Rome, where Romulus is said to have built the city in the eighth century BC. The hill served as the imperial family's palace beginning with Rome's first emperor, Augustus. It was here that Caesar was buried and where later emperors were also buried.
Rome wasn't always a city full of churches and temples; it was once a city full of palaces. During its golden age under the Caesars, it was one magnificent palace after another that rose along the Tiber River. The story of these buildings has been told many times over, but they remain important symbols of Rome's greatness.
One such palace was built by Julius Caesar and stood for almost a thousand years before it was destroyed by an arsonist. It was rebuilt several times over the next few centuries but never regained its original grandeur. However, it did become the home of some famous people including Emperor Hadrian who lived there with his wife, queen Aelia Paetina. It was here that she gave birth to their only child, a son they called Marcellus.
Emperor Constantius II married Helena, the daughter of Constantine I, in 339 AD at the ancient palace on the Palatine Hill. The couple went on to have three children: Constans, Constantine III, and Helena.
Domus were the homes of wealthy Roman residents in cities. They were single-story dwellings constructed around a courtyard called an atrium. Atriums had no roofs and chambers that opened off of them. A wealthy Roman home included several rooms, including a kitchen, bath, dining room, bedrooms, and slave quarters. Public buildings such as temples also had atria for ventilation.
In rural areas, landowners built their own houses instead. These were usually one story with roof tiles or wooden beams. Sometimes they had two stories, especially if there were children living here too.
The most important person in a household was the master of the house, so he would have the largest room. It could be used as a study or library, or even as a prison for ill-behaved slaves. A wife and family would share another room on the first floor. Slaves would live in smaller rooms on the lower level or out in the stable or garage. There could be up to six employees under one master!
A cook would eat with the family but would not belong to it. He or she would have their own room with a private toilet. A scribe would work in another room where it was quiet. This could be in a separate section of the house or even outside on a porch or balcony.
A doctor would treat patients in his office.