In New York City, the history of skyscrapers started with the erection of the World Building in 1890, which reached to a height of 349 feet (106 m). Though not the city's first high-rise, it was the first structure to surpass Trinity Church's 284-foot (87-meter) tower. The building was designed by William Waldorf Astor, who had just been elected chairman of the board of directors of the newly formed Real Estate Board of New York.
The next major step forward in the development of skyscrapers came with the opening of the New York Tribune Tower in 1910. Designed by Graham, Anderson, Probst and Simpson, this 381-foot (116-meter) structure is still one of the highest buildings in New York City. It was followed by several other tall buildings, such as the Morgan Stanley Dean Witter Tower, which was completed in 1990 at 1 Wall Street. This structure rises 468 feet (140 meters) - the second tallest building in New York after One World Trade Center, which will be completed in 2014 at 1,079 feet (329 meters)
The early 20th century saw the emergence of the office tower as we know it today. Before that time, most skyscrapers were used for commercial or residential purposes. The first true office building was the Rookery, which was erected in Chicago in 1891. It was followed by more than a dozen other such buildings throughout the United States.
The name "skyscraper" was coined in the 1880s, shortly after the first tall buildings were built in the United States, however towering buildings had been there for hundreds of years. Engineers have been fighting for the sky since the Middle Ages. There were towers before there were skyscrapers. But what's so new and revolutionary about skyscrapers? They combine high rises with heavy industry inside single building-montrals. They're one step away from cities in ruin and collapse.
Towers have been used in warfare for centuries. The Chinese invented the gunpowder bomb around 1180 and the British developed their own version called the black powder bomb which caused much damage during the American Civil War. Later improvements to gunpowder made it less explosive but more reliable. By the late 19th century, guns were powerful enough to destroy most buildings without lifting a finger. The only real defense against such attacks was high ground or underground space. Towers offered this protection while letting people view the surrounding area for bandits or enemy soldiers.
In modern times, the word "skyscraper" originates with the Chicago School of Architecture. Its leaders believed that the best architecture should serve as advertising for its creators. So they came up with ways to make their buildings stand out on Chicago's windy streets. One idea was to create buildings that went as high as possible so that they could be seen from far away.
There are 257 skyscrapers in New York City. New York City has the most skyscrapers in the United States, with 257 structures rising above 490 feet. There are 119 skyscrapers in Chicago. There are 1,315 tall structures in Chicago. Taller is not always better-looking, but it is in the case of skyscrapers, which are generally assumed to be ugly unless they're sculpted by Frank Lloyd Wright or Louis Sullivan.
The number one reason people hate skyscrapers is because they are believed to be ugly. But there are other reasons too: they block out the sun, kill trees, and use up valuable space that could be used for something else. Although some people love them, others think they are blight on the landscape and cause pollution through their cooling systems. There are even conspiracy theories about buildings being weapons aimed at destroying enemy cities.
The first skyscraper was built in New York City in 1881. It was called The Manhattan Company Building and was used for corporate headquarters. Today, more than 100 years later, the city has almost completely destroyed all previous building designs and replaced them with more skyscrapers. New York City has the second largest number of skyscrapers in the United States after Chicago.
In 2016, a new building called The Trump Tower will rise in New York City.
Manhattan, it turns out, contains bedrock that is exceptionally adapted to the construction of very tall structures, with many of them only a few meters below the surface. The solid land, however, vanishes in the gooey core of the island, restricting the city's development heights for a long time. Location of Manhattan buildings between 1890 and 1915. Mr. Koolhas describes this as a gap in development because there were no tall buildings on the island until after World War II.
In fact, the reason why there are so few skyscrapers in the city is not only due to the soil conditions but also because of the law. In New York City, all building floors must be made of concrete or steel frames with glass walls. The lack of availability of raw materials during World War II was one of the reasons why most buildings before then were under-sized.
But even though the law prohibits any other kind of material being used for building floors, it has never stopped real estate developers from trying out new things. In fact, the first true skyscraper built in America was actually located in New York City. It is known as the Singer Building and its height of 407 feet makes it currently the third highest building in the country. But despite its great success, it wasn't enough to encourage more people to use this new technology.
The next major breakthrough came just over 10 years later when Chicago became the first city in the world to build a completely metal frame structure for a large office block.