1163 Notre Dame Cathedral's construction began in 1163 and took over 100 years to finish. The main hall was built initially, followed by the towers, decorations, choir, and chapels, which were added throughout time until it was completed in 1345. Maurice de Sully, the bishop of Paris at the time, was the architect of the cathedral. The choice of site and design were his, but the builders also played an important role by choosing to use stone rather than wood for the structure.
Notre Dame has been through many wars and disasters over its history, but it has always been rebuilt after much destruction. The current version of the cathedral is the third one to stand on the same spot; the first one was destroyed during the French Revolution.
The current Notre Dame was built between 1844 and 1879 under the direction of French architects Nicholas I and George Escholier. They designed a neo-Gothic building that resembles the original version of the cathedral as well as some other French churches from that time period. During World War II, German soldiers burned parts of the city around Notre Dame to prevent it from being used by Allied forces. After the war, scientists discovered that the tower of the cathedral was missing its top three-quarters due to fire damage, so it was replaced with a replica made of steel and concrete. Today, visitors can climb up inside the tower for a view of Parisian rooftops below.
According to the cathedral's website, construction on Notre Dame began in 1163 and was finished about 1250. The site was chosen because of its proximity to the River Seine and its location between Paris and London.
Notre Dame is one of the most famous landmarks in Paris and one of the best-known churches in the world. The current building dates back to the 13th century, but it has been rebuilt several times since then. It was completely destroyed during the French Revolution in 1793 and again by German bombs in 1944.
The present version can be seen as a complete restoration of the cathedral after the second destruction. It has been called "the new stone church that has replaced the old wooden one" (la nouvelle église de bois qui a remplacé l'ancienne).
The first part of the reconstruction was done from 1844 to 1852 under the direction of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. He also designed the interior of the cathedral, including many of the stained glass windows. The final touches were made in the late 19th century, when more renovations were done to make the structure acceptable for public worship.
The cathedral is a landmark of French Gothic architecture. Construction began in 1163 under Parisian bishop Maurice de Sully. The location of Notre Dame in the heart of Paris was chosen because it was the site of a previous Roman temple. When construction was completed in 1345, it was one of the most influential churches in Europe.
What was originally located on the site of Notre Dame? Originally this site was home to a Celtic church that was dedicated to Saint Saturnin. This church was destroyed during the Viking invasions of France in 841 and 845. In 1032 Archbishop Dungal built a new church on the same site. This new church was dedicated to San Juan de Dios (Saint John of God). It had an elongated nave with three aisles and a high choir with seven arches. The main entrance was through large open doors in the south wall. The interior of the church was decorated with columns and stained glass windows. In 1556 Bishop Jean du Bellay ordered that the church be replaced with a larger one because the population of Paris was growing and the small church was no longer enough to house all the people who wanted to worship Jesus Christ.
During the Revolution the church was abandoned and fell into disrepair. In 1791 Napoleon ordered that it be torn down to make way for a military academy that would later become the Jesuit college Louis le Grand.